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AS and A Level: Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity

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  1. DNA Database Advantage Or Disadvantage

    So if wasn't done many sickening crimes would have gone unsolved and many dangerous criminals would have remained at large Moral Issues associated with the development and subsequent issues of the National DNA database The database was created in 1995 as a crime fighting tool in 2004 a law was passed in allowing the DNA of innocent people to be retained by the police and now anyone whose arrested and not convicted has their genetic code entered into the

    • Word count: 1444
  2. Parkinsons Disease

    In the long term PD will ultimately lead to death. Causes We are still unsure of the causes of PD but here are the most likely and most talked about suggestions: 1. The hereditary form of PD occurs in fifteen per cent of cases2. The genes affected help clear nerve cells of excess proteins. Scientists are not sure but it is thought that when the 'production process for protein manufacture breaks down, little clumps of ill-formed proteins begin to accumulate in cell' 17, causing cell death.

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  3. Lemna Proposal

    We are going to use 20% pond water and are going to observe the competition between the lemna and algae using only the nutrients in the pond water. Lemna and algae compete for the nutrients in the pond water, which are limited due to the two plants being in the same cup. Hypothesis: When the brownish food coloring is added to the algae and the lemna in pond water, the algae will not be able to absorb blue light and will not be able to photosynthesize leading to its stunt in growth, thus immensely decreasing the competition between the algae and lemna.

    • Word count: 1137
  4. Can relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) be prevented?

    Some of the symptoms include... > Anemia - caused by excessive leukemic cells preventing the production of healthy red blood cells. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue and breathless. > Fever (high temperature) > Weight loss > Frequent infections that take long to fight off - due to the lack of health and fully developed white blood cells > Bruising easily and with no obvious cause - due to reduced number of platelets > Bleeding from the gums or nose - sensitive as blood can't easily clot with reduced platelet count.

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  5. To analyse the quality and components of the two different water samples

    no. Average of sample 'a' Average of sample 'b' Average of sample 'a' and 'b' 1 3.4 6.6 5.0 GRAPH:2 showing phosphate content in sample 'A' and 'B' in 3 trials. CHLORIDE: Table: 5 to find the chloride content in the sample 'A' and sample 'B'. Trial number Sample 'A' (no. of CD3 drops added) Sample 'B' (no. of CD4 drops added) 1 20 25 2 17 22 3 19 27 Table: 6 to find the average number of CD3 and CD4 drops added in the solution.

    • Word count: 1494
  6. The Human Genome Project

    They are preparing to do this by pinpointing the DNA sequence of an abnormal gene in which a disease originates and associating it with the data of a healthy gene. This research project in its entirety is called "The Human Genome Project." In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) at first, and then the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were the research agencies within the government that were responsible for developing the project. In 1988 the two agencies started working together, this association was formalized by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding to "coordinate research and technical activities related to the human genome" (National Human Genome Research Institute).

    • Word count: 857
  7. Biology Report - Effect of Environment on Phenotype

    This is the basis of my investigation. Although the plants are the same genotype and in the same condition, their root growth should differ because of the substance and its pH that is used to accommodate each plant. If the pH is higher than 7.4 then ions such as iron, Manganese, Copper, Boron and zinc become less available. When there is a deficiency then the plant's growth will slow down, resulting in no, or less root growth. It also affects the absorption of nutrients by the plants because when the pH is lower then 6, Phosphoric acid, calcium and magnesium become less soluble in water and it becomes difficult for the plant to absorb them, again inhibiting root growth.

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  8. Chlortastic

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  9. Genetic Mutations

    Most mutations are recognized as 'foreign' by the organism's immune system and are subsequently destroyed. As somatic cells do not produce gametes the mutation is not passed along to the next generation by sexual means. 'Carcinogens' are substances that cause cancerous cell growth which affect the DNA in cells, resulting in mutations. For example, an individual that spends prolonged periods of time under 'ultra violet' light may develop a mutation in a somatic skin cell, and thus develop melanoma. Melanoma develops from melanocytes|. In melanoma the melanocytes start to grow and divide more quickly than usual and start to spread into the surrounding surface layers of skin.

    • Word count: 603
  10. Schizophrenia: Is it preventable? How symptoms are derived from underlying defects:

    Strange behavior may develop including laughing without a cause, talking to themselves repetitively. Social withdrawal may include change of friends, avoiding eye contact with others, signs of lack of interest in certain activities. Thought disorder develops in the individual and can result in confused and hard to understand conversations. The intense internal feeling can cause the individual to have suicidal thoughts, depression, and short attention span. The feelings around them can be a burden and the amplification of extreme emotional state may occur. Causes: The biological, psychological, environmental factors contribute to the causes of schizophrenia.

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  11. In this coursework I am going to investigate the different characteristics of cloning, how it came to be, the methodologies and how it works, and, in the process, determine its significance to humans.

    Humans have been using this vegetative technique in agriculture for thousands of years. The process has been helpful in environments where flowering and seedling establishment are infrequent. The table below shows the advantages and the disadvantage of plant cloning. Advantages of plant cloning Disadvantages of plant cloning A lot of new plants can be grown in a short time All plants have same genetic information so there is risk of diseases or pests Little space is needed No new characteristics All new plants inherit the same characteristics No variation Like plants capable of asexual reproduction, the eggs of some animals can grow into adults in a different environment besides the body of its parent.

    • Word count: 2096
  12. Core practicalWhy do they put mint in toothpaste? Would garlic be better?)

    * Pestle and mortar * 10 cm3 industrial methylated spirits * pipette(sterile) * paper discs * sterile Petri dish * sterile forceps * tape * marker pen * incubator set at 25oC Procedure:- * Cleaned the table with antibacterial spray. * Labelled the Petri dishes for garlic, mint and water (control). * Place agar plate in to a Petri dish and leave it for 5 minutes to allow it to thicken and add bacteria. * Add methanol to both garlic and mint. * Crush the garlic and mint separately * Placed disc one in water, one in garlic and one in mint and tap the dish * Repeated the above steps for two more Petri dishes and add different bacteria to each dish.

    • Word count: 552
  13. Risk Factors of CHD

    Partially due to similar lifestyles of family members but there is evidence for genetic causes. Smoking can significantly increase the risk of death from CHD. Nicotine can make arteries constrict, causing an increase in high blood pressure.

    • Word count: 300
  14. Investigating the effect of two environmental conditions on competition between populations of Tribolium confusum and Tribolium castaneum

    By changing conditions in the niche, such as the temperature and the quality of food, it may turn out that one specie becomes more dominant and has more advantage, or that both are equally disadvantaged and population numbers remain relatively low. Conditions Time - based on a graph Ref 2, the population of each culture increased initially, but after 50 or so days, T. cf decreased gradually in quantity to the point of extinction, nearly 700 days later. I think this can justify that I use a time period of 150 days, as this will allow any initial irregularities to settle, and for an obvious trend to take place.

    • Word count: 1300
  15. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    1.7 species have already been described and named4, of those that have been already been identified only a fraction has been examined for potential medicinal, agricultural or industrial value.5 Invertebrates, which present more than 95% of the known species on earth, are animals without backbones.7 Freshwater shrimps are a species of amphipod, which is an animal order within the class crustacea. The freshwater shrimp has the binomial name Gammarus pulex. They are very active and move with quick sudden movements.

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  16. Investigation as to whether the aspect of a wall affects the growth of lichens

    The positioning of the quadrat along the wall should follow a formula so that no intentional position can be made as this will produce biased results. In order to do this there should be regular intervals between quadrat settings and they should also be set at different heights on the wall. Method Outline A 30cm by 30 cm quadrat will be used to measure lichen distribution across the wall. A metre ruler will be used to measure the height at which the quadrats are placed and also the regular interval space between quadrat settings.

    • Word count: 4300
  17. Biology Report. How Stem cell research can help enhance medical advancements

    This disease is caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain2. The source that provided me with this information was Wikipedia, although it is useful website to gain information from I do not believe it is reliable. The reasons for this is because it allows anybody who has access to the website to edit various articles, meaning that they could contain inaccurate or misguided information therefore it will not have the detailed knowledge sought for were it to be written by scientists.

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  18. The main objective of this experiment is to investigate dihybrid inheritance and understand the basic genetic and the process of division

    3males: 0 females - black body, normal wings 0 male: 1 female - black body, vestigal wings Expected results of experiments TEST tube A F1 generation: Parent's bbTT X BBtt bTbt bT Bt bT bbTT bBtT Bt BbtT BBtt F1 ratio: 1:2:1 Key: B= Normal body B = Black body T = normal wings T - Vestigal wings BT Bt bT bt BT BBTT BBTt BbTT BbTt Bt BBtT BBtt BbtT Bbtt bT bBTT bBTt bbTT bbTt bt bBtT bBtt bbtT bbtt F2 generation F2 Ratio: 9:3:3:1 Key: B= Normal body B = Black body T = normal wings T

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    The pGLO plasmid contains the gene for GFP but also the gene for �-lactamase, which provides resistance to ampicillin. B-lactamase inactivates the ampicillin present on the nutrient agar, allowing bacterial growth. Only transformed bacteria will grow on plates that contain ampicillin. Only a very small percentage of cells take up the plasmid DNA and are transformed. Transformation solution - contains calcium chloride. The calcium cation neutralizes the repulsive negative charges of the phosphate backbone of the DNA and phospholipids of the cell membrane, allowing DNA to enter the cells. Heat shock - increases permeability of the cell membrane to DNA.

    • Word count: 2092
  20. List areas of science that have raised ethical or moral issues

    This was aroused during the creation of Dolly the sheep in 1997 which caused world interest and the scientific and ethical implications. The most known cloning technique is the reproductive cloning; however, there are three types of cloning techniques cloning technique. These tree types of cloning are DNA cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. DNA cloning Molecular cloning refers to the transfer of DNA fragment from one organism to a self- replication genetic element like a bacterial plasmid. Plasmids are self- replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules.

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  21. Cloning could be used for the benefit or demise of the world, unforeseen problems may arise from cloned copies of plants, animals, or humans.

    Dolly was cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly produced offspring whose names were Bonnie, Sally, Rosie, Lucy, Darcie, and Cotton; all who survived. Dolly was the only lamb to survive the cloning process out of 266 attempts. Dolly developed a lung disease, called Jaagsiekte; it is still undecided whether it was because of cloning that she developed this disease. The disease killed Dolly at the age of six. (July 5, 1997 - February 14, 2003) Normal life expectancy for sheep is 11 or 12 years. Since Dolly, ten other animals have been successfully cloned, a tadpole, a carp, a mouse, a rhesus monkey, a guar, a cow, a cat, a horse, a mule, a water buffalo, and a camel.

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  22. Genetics Assignment

    Only a code composed of three bases could incorporate all 20 amino acids into the structure of protein molecules, this is known as the "base triplet hypothesis"; the triplet code is called a codon. The code is universal; the same triplet code for the same amino acids in all organisms, it is degenerate; a given amino acid may be coded for by more than one codon, and it is non-overlapping which means that each triplet is read separately. Scientists knew that DNA had to replicate itself prior to cell division so that each daughter cell would obtain all of the genetic information.

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  23. dna extraction from peas

    For example, our DNA controls hair colour and eye colour. In this experiment DNA was extracted from peas. This is an ideal product to use as it doesn't smell (like onions) and also prevents the spread of any disease (e.g., by using animal tissue that may have been infected with BSE or VCJD) and mainly because the method behind it is very simple. Hypothesis It is to be expected that it will be possible to extract DNA from a pea.

    • Word count: 860
  24. Pfiesteria Report

    Scientists have proven that as the years went by, human activity, such as putting nutrients (containing phosphorus and nitrogen) in the badly drained Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system slowly made the harmless algae to start the "fish-killing business." When the water becomes full of nutrients and schools of fishes are around, pfiesteria will start to grow and populate. This is called a "bloom", when pfiesterias are in "bloom" they make toxins that numb fish, which lets the microbe, feed on them. Pfiesteria's blooming can stay up to a few hour tops. Blooms do not always end up with pfiesteria producing toxins however; pfiesteria may spend its whole life span feeding on algae and bacteria.

    • Word count: 1178

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