Is Genetically Produced Insulin The Right Way To Treat Diabetes
29/03/2004 James Is Genetically Produced Insulin The Right Way To Treat Diabetes? In this project I plan to research and evaluate different methods of producing human insulin for treating people with diabetes. The main methods I will research and evaluate are methods that use some sort of genetic modification process. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by beta cells. Insulin is necessary to remove excess sugar from the blood, by moving it into other body tissues where it is used as energy(9). Insulin also helps the body to metabolize (process) carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the diet. Insulin was the first genetically engineered drug in the world. (4) People with diabetes have a problem with their pancreas; it does not produce enough insulin for the body's needs, so additional insulin is required or serious problems with the persons nerves, blood vessels, kidneys, and eyes will occur over time. Insulin has to be injected otherwise acid in the stomach would destroy the insulin if taken by mouth. Insulin controls diabetes, but does not cure it. Insulin must be taken regularly, so to keep the persons blood-sugar level stable (1). (2) Methods Of Producing Insulin. GE Insulin-Producing Bacteria. Nowadays demand for insulin is so great that the pig produced insulin method (below) couldn't
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's stories about the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes have been popular since they were first published in 1886. Explore the reasons behind this enduring popularity?
Report of My Visit to Xscape On the 6th of February 2004, our Physics class was invited to take a tour of the skiing facility at Xscape in Milton Keynes. The visit gave me a good insight into different areas of Physics that were seen at the skiing complex. We learnt a lot about the cooling system, how it works, and areas of energy loss which could be harnessed instead of lost. We were given a tour as well as a brief talk about Xscape by Mr. Shears. Section 1: Aspects of Physics Observed .1 I observed the operation of drag lifts at Xscape which took skiers back up the ski slope. Each drag lift consisted of 16 hangers onto which the skiers would sit on when going up the ski slope. The cable used to carry all 16 skiers needs to be able to support the 16 skiers by withstanding high degrees of tension. This tension acts on the cable in opposite directions, but these tensions will not equal each other. This is explained below: I am going to focus on the tensions in the cable for one skier sitting on a hanger being pulled up the ski slope. We were told by Mr. Shears that the cable to the top of the slope is at an angle of about 22° to the horizontal and the cable down to the bottom of the slope was at about 20°. We can find the tensions in the cable by resolving forces acting horizontally and vertically on the cable. We know that the horizontal component of T1 and T2 must
Research on mad cow disease and creutzfeldt-jacob disease
Prion Diseases Mad Cow & Mad Human Aamir Shaikh's SNAB AS coursework Unit 3: Paper 01 Visit or Issue Report Word Count: 1, 964 The two topics covered are Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD), with CJD being the main topic. This is aimed at students who are studying A levels and wish to gain further insight into BSE & CJD. This can be used as a handout or a small text booklet that can be supplied/handed out to student during class/lecture Topic 1 Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease What is CJD? 1 Symptoms and Effects of CJD 1 Causes of CJD 2 Structure of a prion 2 What do prions do? 3 Methods to combat prions 3 Research 4 Topic 2 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy What is BSE? 4 Symptoms of BSE 4 Causes 4 Prevention 5 Glossary 6 Bibliography 7 Validity 8 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease? Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease is a rare yet
Medical research may be carried out on transgenic organisms to obtain information which can improve medical knowledge. For example, oncogene which causes cancer in humans can be inserted into mouse,
THE ROLE OF TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS CAN ONLY BENEFIT HUMANS. A transgenic organism is an organism whose genome has been modified or genetically manipulated by the introduction of a foreign gene. The first transgenic animal was produced in 1982, when a growth hormone from a rat was inserted into a mouse. Since then, genes from different species, including humans, has been introduced into animals, plants and even micro-organisms. (http://nabc.cals.cornell.edu). Genetic engineering provides an alternative to traditional methods of plant and animal breeding because it is a lot faster and efficient. Medical research may be carried out on transgenic organisms to obtain information which can improve medical knowledge. For example, oncogene which causes cancer in humans can be inserted into mouse, forming a transgenic organism called Oncomouse. The mouse develops tumours and is used in cancer research to find possible drugs for the disease (Biological science D. Taylor). Scientists are also finding ways to produce proteins or drugs in transgenic animals. Milk-producing transgenic animals like cows are especially useful for pharmaceutical medicines. Transgenic animals like pigs may also be designed for organ production, helping to reduce the shortage of kidneys and livers available for transplants. Genetic engineering can help to increase crop yield by developing transgenic organisms
The Impact of genetic fingerprinting and gene profiling in Forensic Science
Helen Douglas 12.4 BIOLOGY COURSEWORK: The Impact of genetic fingerprinting and gene profiling in Forensic Science Gene profiling and genetic fingerprinting was unheard of in Forensic Science 20 years ago. DNA testing was initially introduced in the 1980s and the first court case, which saw a man put behind bars due to the forensic evidence was in 1985. Following the success of the use of physical proof, numerous cases around the world from paternity tests to identification of American soldiers from the Vietnam War have been solved. A person's DNA (de-oxyribonucleic acid) can be found from a single strand of hair, skin under a murder victim's nails or bodily fluids such as sweat, saliva, semen and blood. The chances of a sample of DNA being the same as another person, other than monozygotic twins is 1 in 24 million. This is why recent cases such as that of Sarah Payne rely so much on DNA samples found at the crime scene. In this case a single strand of Sarah's hair was found on Roy Whitting's sweatshirt and matching fibres from his sweatshirt were found on her shoe, although there was slight controversy as to whether the evidence was contaminated. The method for extracting the DNA from a sample is a complex one. The technique was first developed in this country in 1985, the year of the first proven case. Firstly the DNA must be extracted from the sample of body tissue
What different methods exist for studying genetic variation at a molecular level? How could an allele polymorphism mutation be shown to contribute to a disease/ trait?
What different methods exist for studying genetic variation at a molecular level? How could an allele polymorphism mutation be shown to contribute to a disease/ trait? Almost all human genetic variation is relatively insignificant biologically- that is, it has no apparent adaptive significance. Some variation such as a neutral mutations, alter the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein but produces no detectable change in its function. Other variation, for example, silent mutations, do not even change the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Furthermore, only a small percentage of the DNA sequences in the human genome are coding sequences (sequences that are ultimately translated into protein) or regulatory sequences (sequences that can influence the level, timing, and tissue specificity of gene expression). However, these supposedly silent variations may be useful in mapping specific genes in the human genome, is not allowing the study of variation amongst individuals in a population flourish. The co-existence of more than one variant of an allele is called genetic polymorphism. More precisely, an allele is usually defined as polymorphic if it is present at a frequency of >1% in a population. Variation among individuals however, need not only occur in base sequences in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which codes for the production of a polypeptide molecule
Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this.
Psychology Essay Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this. Schizophrenia is the label applied to a group of disorders characterised by severe personality disorganisation, distortion of reality, and an inability to function in daily life. Symptoms are mainly disturbances of thought processes, but also extend to disturbances of emotion and behaviour. There are two symptom categories - acute schizophrenia characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions; and chronic schizophrenia, characterised by negative symptoms such as apathy and withdrawal. However, DSM-IV has now moved away from these definitions and classified schizophrenia into three main sub-types: paranoid, disorganised and catatonic. Understanding Schizophrenia More research has, probably, been devoted to trying to understand the nature of schizophrenia than any other mental disorder. Somatogenic approaches have focused on the role of genetic mechanisms influencing the propensity to develop schizophrenia, while psychogenic approaches emphasise the effect of adverse childhood experiences, particularly abnormalities in family interaction in the aetiology of the disorder. Twin studies Twin studies offer a
"Only god has the right to interfere with our genes"
03.11.04 Greg Judge 1O4 RE COURSEWORK - PART B 845 WORDS "Only god has the right to interfere with our genes" Genetic engineering is when scientists manipulate the human genome to alter 'bad' genes; these genes are responsible for all types of diseases and conditions from cancer to the acclaimed 'fat' gene which is responsible for the obesity crisis that the modern world is currently facing. This practice has been controversial one because religions and other organizations across the world believe that genetic engineering is playing god as it allows man to create people with any mental and physical characteristics possible. As well as this, scientists would also be able to create food, livestock and even grow human transplant parts on animals that are grown to precise specifications. These could include food that lasts longer and animals that have more meat, all this is possible using genetic engineering and that makes genetic engineering a very controversial topic both in the political and religious communities. In my essay I am going to consider whether man should have the power of god to do this, I will look at the opinions and beliefs of 2 religions and my own personal opinion. The 2 religions will be looking at are Christianity and Islam. Christians agree that only god should have the right to manipulate our genes and characteristics because 'it is wrong to try
Objective: To investigate the effect of using different carbon source on the growth of yeast cells.
NAME: FARAH NADZIRAH ROSLI CLASS: ALM 7 M 13 Title: Using Different Carbon and Source for Growth Objective: To investigate the effect of using different carbon source on the growth of yeast cells. Background summary: Growth depends upon both the type of the nutrients available and their concentration. Cells are largely made up of the four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen with smaller, but significant, quantities of phosphorus and sulphur. Accounting as they do for 90% of the cell's dry mass, all six elements are essential for growth. Hence, like all living organisms, microorganisms require an energy source, a carbon source and a range of nutrients for metabolic and cell growth. Microorganisms are small, easily dispersed and quick to multiply given a suitable environment. They grow on a wide diversity of substrates making them ideal subjects for commercial application. The microorganisms need organic carbon source, such as carbohydrates, as most of them are heterotrophic. Carbohydrates act as a respiratory substrate of cells. Microorganisms also need a nitrogen source for synthesis of DNA, RNA, ATP, coenzymes and chlorophylls. Apart from that, each species has its own optimum conditions within which it grows best. Respiration involves a series of metabolic pathway, which is a series of enzyme-controlled chemical reaction, where the product of
In what ways do lipids differ from carbohydrates?
A. In what ways do lipids differ from carbohydrates? Lipids are a group of substances, which include fats, oils and waxes. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. They are stored in plants as starches and in animals as glycogen. There are many differences between carbohydrates and lipids. For example lipids are insoluble in water whereas carbohydrates are soluble in water. This is because lipids contain non - polar hydrocarbon units whereas water contains polar hydrocarbon units. So when the two are mixed together there is no attraction between particles so no breakdown is possible. But lipids care soluble in non - polar solvents, e.g. alcohol. Carbohydrates have polar hydroxyl groups, so there are able to break down in water. The structure of each is also different. Carbohydrates form long chained polymers and lipids form shorter chains of polymers. Also they belong to different groups; lipids belong to the Ester group and carbohydrates belong to the Keto and Alcehyde groups. In carbohydrates the ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen atoms is always 2:1, but there is not a fixed ratio of these elements in lipids. They also vary in the amount of energy they release when oxidised; lipids release large amounts whereas carbohydrates release a lot less. B. Using examples to illustrate your answer, describe the functions of lipids in organism. Lipids are a useful