Analysis of dog genome assists the understanding of human health
Analysis of dog genome assists the understanding of human health Ever thought of how resembling and how close you and your pet dog can be? Dogs not only share the same air, same water, the same house or even the same bed with humans (Clarke, Toni.2005), they also exhibit similarities in genes and diseases with humans. Here are some examples of numerous diseases that we share with dogs: Cancer, deafness, blindness, heart disease, epilepsy etc. Scientists therefore believe that decoding dog's genome will provide helpful information in developing cures for the diseases in both species. Much work has been done over the past few years to discover which specific gene on a particular chromosome is responsible for a special type of disease. The Dog Genome Project is currently the most popular program carried out at The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, which is "part of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Large-scale Research Network" (National Institutes of Health, 2005). Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre was initially involved, now taken over by the NHGRI. This project is applied by scientist as the model system and aims to map and clone the genes of dogs in order for research in cancer and genetic work. Gene mapping is the process that centres the whole genome project. This practise is defined as "the determination of the sequence of genes and their relative
In this coursework I am going to investigate the different characteristics of cloning, how it came to be, the methodologies and how it works, and, in the process, determine its significance to humans.
The importance of cloning In this coursework I am going to investigate the different characteristics of cloning, how it came to be, the methodologies and how it works, and, in the process, determine its significance to humans. Introduction There are several meanings being attached to cloning today and they cause confusion and uncertainty. However, the general definition that most scientists use in describing cloning is the one that is relevant to the different processes for duplicating a biological material. Hence, the definition covers both the artificial and natural processes. Cloning by artificial means is the one most popularly identified with cloning: It is the creation of a clone scientifically, that is, by some conscious design or human interruption. Contrary to widespread belief, cloning can be considered a natural process, too. Natural cloning has been going on for billions of years. Natural cloning occurs when an organism reproduces asexually or when two genetically identical twins are produced by a splitting of a fertilized egg. For example, when one takes a stem from a yam plant and plant it in the ground, a new plant would grow as it takes root. The new plant can be considered a clone in the sense that it is identical to its parent. Similar cloning takes place in grass, potatoes and onions. This is a technique for producing plants asexually. Humans have been
Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of Utilitarianism
Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is an idea first developed by David Hume in his book 'Why Utility Pleases'. Hume tried to account for the fact that we tend to approve those qualities and actions that are useful to society; that is, those that promote social utility. However, Hume's theory of ethics could not be described as utilitarianism in the way that the term is used today. Jeremy Bentham was the first person to use Utilitarianism in the way in which the term would be used today. Drawing on and adapting Hume's ideas in order to coincide with the society in which he lived during the industrial revolution. He was concerned with social reform as the conditions in which people lived and worked were appalling. Bentham wanted to find a way of defining right and wrong without a need for a transcendent authority. In 'Introduction to the principles of moral legislation' he tried to establish a way of arguing for something to be good and bad according to its benefits for the majority of the people, he called this the principle of utility. Bentham established a Hedonic calculus by which happiness could be measured, the hedonic calculus was split up into six categories; duration, intensity, remoteness, purity, richness, and extent. Using this calculus, Bentham believed that it was possible to measure the amount of pleasure or pain
Why are fossil fuels so important to society, and why do we need to develop renewable fuels for the future?
Why are fossil fuels so important to society, and why do we need to develop renewable fuels for the future? Fossil fuels are substances, which were created several hundred million years ago through the decomposition of prehistoric organisms and plants. Machines such as televisions, cars and computers we take for granted in our daily lives, need energy to run. The energy used to power these energy things come from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels can be categorised into three types; petroleum, natural gas and coal. Examples of petroleum fuels include gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuels. Because of petroleum's importance to our energy needs, infrastructure necessary to extract oil from the ground and refine it is already in place, and this oil is relatively economical source of energy. One of the major forms of natural gas is propane, which is also useful in a number of applications, including transportation. We burn natural gas to heat our homes, hot water and for industrial processes. Another form of fossil fuel is coal. Coal occurs naturally in a solid form and is used primarily to produce electricity. It therefore provides us with light, motive power from electric motors, and our many electronic devices. At some point in the future, certain countries will invariably be without a fossil fuel- based economy as fossil fuels are not renewable, but rather an expendable source of
The advantages and disadvantages of the biological control method of pest management?
Andrew Wilson The advantages and disadvantages of the biological control method of pest management The biological control method of pest management does not use chemicals. Biological control uses various organisms that are either predators or parasites to the pest. A pest is an organism which causes damage to people and their crops, however this is an economical definition, as opposed to a biological one. Something is considered to be a pest when it reduces productivity by 5-10%. Plants require certain mineral ions in order to grow well, however there is a limited amount of these in soil. Therefore if weeds are growing in a wheat crop, they will take some of the mineral ions that would go to the wheat plants. Interspecific competition is the competition between organisms of different species for the resources that they require, and intraspecific competition is the competition between organisms of the same species. Weeds also compete with crops for water and light as opposed to just mineral ions. Pests reduce the yield of plants in various ways. They can have a direct effect by damaging the leaves of the plant. Aphids feed by inserting their mouthparts into plant cells, this often results in leaves curling up and becoming distorted. Considering the leaves of a plant are the places where the majority of the photosynthesis takes place, it follows that a plant with stunted
Investigation of Microorganisms
Introduction For my AVCE Science coursework I will be doing an investigation into organisms; however I will be describing 2 of them in specific detail. The organisms that I will be investigation are: Barley Yeast Hen Farming I will be investigating in further detail of the barley and yeast. I have chosen to investigate the barley and yeast organisms because as part of my course I visited a brewery manufacturing company. I collected a lot of information on these two. While I was there I understood how barley is used towards the organisations success. Plan I will research the different types of organisms and compare them as well as research the to chosen organism and look at them in depth to get a better understanding. To increase my knowledge and give me a better understanding I will visit a brewing shop, preferably Carlsberg. I will gather information on how the brewing process is done. I will use relevant data collected from different websites and use the correct terminology, which I think is correct. Outlines of Barley It grows faster in cold conditions, it is an major food around the world, it is also used to feed animals such as horses, cattle etc. It mixed with other grains such as rice. A particular strain of barley found in China, it is effective in breaking down animal fats in the body. This was considered to be the poorer person's food source in the early
Transgenic organisms; scientific breakthrough or historical disaster
Transgenic organisms; scientific breakthrough or historical disaster In this report I will be showing how transgenic organism are introduced into animals and plants and the modern day issues of these process. A transgenic organism contains stable integrated recombinant DNA. This is achieved by inserting a new piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on every chromosome in each cell. To achieve this would take large amount of time, so new DNA strand is inserted when the organism is only one cell. Though the process of mitosis the single cell will replicate its self identically and every cell in the organism will now contain this new DNA strand. This whole process is called recombinant DNA technology DNA contains thousands of different genes, which are made up of nucleotides. Each gene corresponds to different characteristics and hereditary information. The DNA strand is usually extracted from other organism and the new gene inserted is called transgene. This additions of a new DNA strand will allow organisms either, animals or plants to have properties of other organisms have. Here is a diagram a strand of DNA containing a gene, The purpose of this process is to produce modified crops and animals, which have enhanced genital information, to improve yield and productivity. The ethical issues of transgenic organisms are very equal. As the advantages of this process is it
In the production of photochemical smog, there are primary and secondary sources that contribute to its production.
In the production of photochemical smog, there are primary and secondary sources that contribute to its production. Primary sources are injected directly into the atmosphere, whereas secondary sources are formed in the atmosphere through chemical and photochemical reactions. As the graph shows, motor vehicles (the red and pink columns) contribute largely to most of the primary pollutants. The main pollutants though are Carbon Monoxide and oxides of nitrogen (Nox). Motor vehicles also contribute largely to the secondary pollutant Nitrogen Dioxide. During the combustion of coal, primary pollutants are formed. Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur are formed because is there is both nitrogen and sulphur in coal - initially from the decomposed organisms. This becomes oxidised by burning. Oxides of Nitrogen are also created because there is such a high temperature of combustion, atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen form what is called thermal NOx (1). Photochemical smog is a condition that develops when primary pollutants interact under the influence of sunlight (2) to produce secondary pollutants. Several reactions lead to the production of the constituents of photochemical smog, taking place in the troposphere. Ozone is present in all levels of the atmosphere, even in unpolluted air. In unpolluted air, Nitrous Oxide reacts with the ozone, producing Nitrous Dioxide and Oxygen: 03 + NO
The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction
The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Aim: The aim is to look at how the rate of reaction in yeast catalase is affected by a particular substrate concentration. The substrate that is used in this experiment is hydrogen peroxide on the yeast catalase, which will bring faster and more precise results. Enzymes only work with substrates that fit their active site, called the lock and key mechanism. This is where the substrate fits into the enzyme in the same way that a key fits into a lock. During the process, a substrate is fitted into an active site of an enzyme. Not all substrates fit in, only particular ones, hence, the 'lock and key'. When they are together, the enzyme - substrate complex is made into a product. This is when the bonds in the substrate are weakened. The products are left from the enzyme, leaving the enzyme unchanged after the reaction. The reaction is a catabolic reaction, which means the yeast catalase breaks down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. H2O2 H2O + O2 Apparatus Used: . Stop watch. 2. Measuring Scale. 3. Stand with clamps. 4. Gas syringe. 5. Measuring cylinder. 6. Clonical flask. 7. 1.5 grams of yeast catalase. 8. 4 cm³ of hydrogen peroxide of various concentrations. Method: . 1.5 grams of yeast catalase has to be measured. 2. The
A Separate Peace by John Knowles - summary of theme and narrative
A Separate Peace One should never do such a thing; that when looking back in life they should repent it. A Separate Peace is a flashback novel, written by John Knowles. It takes place in the 1940's in an all male boarding school in New Hampshire. Gene, a fairly young man now visits his old high school, Devon High School fifteen years after graduation, remembering mainly his summer before and his last year there. Gene had spent his time there with his "best friend" Finny. Finny was the time of guy that could get away with everything and anything, especially during the Summer Session the boys were attending. He was good at almost everything, well except for academics. Gene no doubt was the smart one of the two, while Finny was athletically strong. To understand the many feelings and actions that the characters go through, the setting should be taken into great consideration. The 1940's; World War two was taking place at that time. Men from all over the country were getting drafted. At the end of this year, these boys would also be drafted, fighting a war that their families, neighbors, teachers, and fellow citizens were already fighting. Once the Summer Session finishes these boys will begin senior year, at the end of which they will be sent away. Amidst all this confusion and free there is a pair of boys, Finny and Gene. Finny was intimidating, basically everything he said