Chemical Bonding.

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Chemical Bonding

Why compounds are formed:

Most elements form compounds. Except the noble gases because the noble gases have full outer shells. The atoms of all other elements have incomplete outer shells. That is why they react: By reacting with each other, atoms can obtain full outer shells and so become stable. The atoms of some elements can obtain full shells by losing or gaining electrons, when they react with other atoms.


Any atom becomes an ion if it loses or gains electrons. An ion is a charged. It is charged because it contains an unequal number of protons and electrons.

The Ionic Bond:

When two ions have opposite charges, they attract each other. The force of attraction between them is strong. It is called an ionic bond, or sometimes an electrovalent bond. Sodium chloride is made of ions so it is called an ionic compound. Sodium is a metal, and chlorine is a non-metal. They react together to form an ionic compound. Other metals can also react with non-metals to form ionic compounds.

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Some other ions:

Not every element forms ions, during reactions. In fact, out of the first twenty elements in the Periodic Table, only eleven easily form ions. Hydrogen and the metals form positive ions, which have the same names as the atoms. The non-metals form negative ions and their names en in –ide. The other elements do not form ions because their atoms would have to gain or lose several electrons, and that takes too much energy and the other atoms already have full shells.

Transition metal ions:

Some transition metals form only one type of ion. ...

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