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# Demonstrate an understanding of the theory, principles and practice of separation of liquid mixtures by distillation techniques

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Introduction

Middle

http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/~chem2o6/labmanual/expt3/exp3-int.html c immiscible liquid mixtures. In the case when two immiscible liquids are sealed in a container, the vapour pressure that is measured is only the pressure of the liquid that is floating on top of the other. If the two liquids are agitated, the vapour pressure and the boiling point of the liquid mixture will be lower than that of both the two liquids. 5. state and explain Dalton's law of partial pressures. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure: The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone. Mathematically, this can be represented as: PressureTotal = Pressure1 + Pressure2 ... Pressuren This basically says that the total pressure is the same as the sum of each individual component pressure. 6. state and explain how Raoult's law can be used to calculate the total vapour pressure of ideal binary liquid mixtures. Raoult's Law states that: The vapour pressure of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure solvent at that temperature multiplied by its mole fraction. It can be used to calculate the total vapour pressure of an ideal binary liquid mixture as using the mathematical equation, derived from the number of different liquids involved and their concentrations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Azeotropic distillation incorporates the use of an entrainer, or solvent, to help facilitate the distillation process. This is to lower the boiling point of the azeotrope that is contained in the solution so that full distillation can occur. If this entrainer were not present, then the maximum level of distillation that would be possible would be up to approximately 96% which is not pure enough for certain processes. f steam Steam distillation is used when temperature sensitive materials are involved in the distillation process. The steam is used to lower the boiling points of the compounds involved in the process due to temperature sensitive, organic compounds decomposing and breaking down at high, sustained temperatures. If the temperatures are still too high, this process can also be combined with vacuum distillation. g vacuum Vacuum distillation lowers the pressure in the top of the tower, thus reducing the vapour pressure and lowering the boiling point of the fluids contained. This makes evaporation of the components with a very high boiling point easier, producing more saleable product. h pressure. Pressure distillation is another term for vacuum distillation. [D1]a liquid's tendency to evaporate increases with rising temperatures [D2]pressure of a vapour where the air in the surrounding atmosphere is saturated [D3]the partial pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is the pressure it would have if it occupied the same volume on its own [D4]found by totalling the partial pressures of each ideal gas in a mixture of gases ?? ?? ?? ?? Vocational Assignment ...read more.

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