Spleens in the lymphatic system helps defend the body itself as it contains lymphocytes and macrophages that destroy bacteria, dead tissue and foreign bodes that enter the body. The lymphatic system also has the function of carrying different substances such as salt, glucose and proteins through the body. The lymphatic system contains lymph. These lymph’s originate in the body as plasma.
M5- Explain how the lymphatic system protects the body
The lymphatic system is made up of many different vital specialized cells, each of these cells play a role in protecting the body. The system also contains proteins tissues and organs these all help to fight off micro- organisms and protect the body again these micro-organisms. The specialized cells within the lymphatic system defend the body against invasion off viruses, bacteria and fungi. These are known as agents that could possibly cause diseases. These harmful materials are filtered out in the lymphatic system by a small mass of tissue that is also known as the lymph node. The lymph node lies along the network of the lymphatic system.
The lymph nodes within the lymphatic system contain white blood cells; the white blood cells are housed by these nodes. The white blood cells contained within also produce specialized antibodies. These antibodies fight off infection, and stop the spreading off an infection by being able to catch the germs and kill them. These germs are what will cause the disease at a later stage.
Another part of the lymphatic system that helps to fight off an infection is the spleen. The spleen has a vital role in a person’s immune system; similarly to the lymph nodes the spleen contains an antibody producing lymphocytes. Other than producing antibodies the spleen also detects damaged cells that pass through the blood. Once they have been detected white blood cells called macrophages destroy them and clear out the bloodstream. The antibodies produced also kill the bacteria or viruses that are present.
D3- Explain the difference in lymphatic system function in health and disease state
The lymphatic system is needed in the body in order to keep the bodies fluid levels in balance. A healthy lymphatic system is needed to defend the body against infectious diseases. The lymphatic system levels must be maintained as well as the body’s fluid levels. The body’s fluid levels are maintained due to the lymphatic system functioning properly. The whole lymphatic system is maintained by the flow of the fluids. The system basically flows towards the bloodstream when it returns the tissues back to the blood. If these fluids were not returned back to the blood it could cause swelling of the body.
To prevent this from happening and maintain the right levels the body’s lymphatic system they lymph fluids drain into the lymph capillaries. These are very thin and the fluid is only pushed along when a person breathes as this causes the muscles to contract. Due to them being very thin they have very tiny openings that allow water and nutrients to pass through. This means that it is nourishing the surrounding cell.
When the lymph nodes are fighting an infection symptoms tend to show, these symptoms consist of swelling and enlarged lymph nodes, these are mainly visible in the neck area, however this is a positive sign as it shows the infection is being fought off. Lymph nodes usually tend to go back to normal after the infection is fought off however, when they do not an effective massage called aromatherapy is used. Swelling can also happen if the lymph nodes contain cancerous cells.
The body also consists of lymph vessels. Within the body there are twice as many lymph vessels than blood vessels, the lymph vessels are what give the body two circulatory systems. Lymph has to be passed throughout the body; there have been cases where lymph vessels have been damaged through surgery. This means that there is interference with the lymphatic system flow in the body. Regular exercise is needed for the flow of lymph around the body. If exercise is not done then the flow of the lymph through the blood vessels could stop. This could prove to be very dangerous as it could become irritant for the body. The body then responds to this by creating new blood vessels and lymph vessels in that particular part where it has become toxic, however when these new vessels are created it can cause swelling and inflammation.
The Lymphatic system can also cause many diseases, these usually involve one area of the lymph or in worse case scenarios the whole lymph. Lymphedema is one of the most common lymphatic disorders it can also be known as a lymphatic deficiency. This disorder is where they body cannot filter the lymphatic fluid through areas such as the arms and chest properly. This is due to the absence of the lymph nodes. Swelling also becomes visible, which contains trapped fluid of bacterial infection that can lead to cellulites and sepsis. There are two stages to this disorder primary and secondary.
Primary Lymphedema is an inherited part of the disorder that occurs when there are missing or impaired lymphatic vessels. Primary Lymphedema affects at least up to four limbs at a time. Secondary Lymphedema also known as lymphatic deficiencies occur due to an infection after surgery or due to a trauma. Surgery is the main cause as it disrupts the regulation of the lymphatic vessels or can cause a loss in the lymph nodes.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is also another disease caused by the lymphatic system this however is a very rare disease that can cause lung cancer. This type of disease results in disorderly muscle growth in the lymphatic areas. These two are one of many diseases caused by the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system plays a vital role in the body and if this system is not working properly it could prove to cause very dangerous diseases.