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Determination of the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid

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Introduction

PLAN The aim of my investigation is to determine the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT LIMEWATER Limewater solution is a clear coloured saturated Ca(OH)2 produced when calcium carbonate (limestone) is decomposed to form calcium oxide CaO. Water is then added to form CaO (quicklime), to produce slaked lime. Again, excess water is added to form Ca(OH)2 , limewater. Limewater, which is an alkali is used principally in medicine as an antacid as a neutraliser for acidic poisoning or treatment of burns. Limewater as an alkali would have a pH scale of 9-14. I am going to set up my equipment in the form of an acid/base titration since it is a way of measuring quantities of reactants and can be very useful in determining an unknown concentration or following the progress of a reaction which is related to my investigation. The reaction is between an acid (HCl) and alkali, (Ca (OH)2) and therefore it's a neutralisation reaction. In order to determine the concentration of limewater in an experimental way, it is very important to use the most appropriate equipment available. ...read more.

Middle

I am going to use a graduated pipette in my experiment as it will help me to achieve a more accurate result compared to one that is not graduated. I am going to repeat my investigation 3 times to make sure I get reliable results. The titre volumes must be concordant to 0.1 cm3 for maximum reliability. HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS The chemicals that we will use are limewater and hydrochloric acid and the hazards are: Hydrochloric acid is very corrosive and irritant. Limewater (alkali) is irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system. Its reaction with water is vigorous and generates heat. The reaction between these two chemicals will also produce calcium chloride and water both of which have no hazards and is not dangerous. Phenolphthalein, which will be used as well, has no dangers to health and will not react with any other chemical to produce anything dangerous. The chemicals and concentrations I have access to are; * Limewater (250 cm3) containing approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. * Hydrochloric acid (exactly 2.00 mol dm-3 concentration) * Distilled water (to dilute acid) * Phenolphthalein indicator solution In order to be safe in an experimental environment, I am going to use a list of safety equipments. ...read more.

Conclusion

10. First record the reading of the burette at eye level so that you don't misread when measuring. Then release the solution of HCl into the pink coloured limewater solution whilst observing the conical flask and gently swirling it. When the colour start to change halfway between pink and colourless, add the HCl drop by drop by doing this the end point could be reached and you will not be under it or overshoot it. Stop adding the HCl when the pink colour changes to become colourless and record the result from the burette. The white tile underneath the conical flask helps to give us a better view of the colour change. 11. By reading off the side of the burette what volume has been used will give you the volume of HCl acid required to neutralise the alkali. However the result is not accurate enough and anomalies do occur therefore the test must be carried out a further 3 times for any accurate results to become apparent or I can keep repeating the titration until successive titres are within about 0.1 cm3. Each time you make a reading you must be careful to note the starting volume of acid in the burette and the end volume making sure there are no parallax errors. ...read more.

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