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# Energy Efficiency Experiments

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiments

Method-Experiment 1

Firstly we put a light bulb into water which was about 150ml and let a current through to the light bulb. We measured the current, voltage, start temperature, final temperature and the time taken to get a temperature change of 10°C.

Experiment 1light bulbData

 Start Temperature (°C) 22 Final Temperature (°C) 32 Voltage (V) 2.07 Current (A) 7.24 Time (S) 262 Mass(g) 0.15

Energy input= 7.24 x 2.07 x 262 = 3926J

Energy Input= Current x Voltage x Time

Energy output = 0.15 x 4.187 x 10 = 6.2805J

Useful energy output= Mass x Specific heat capacity x Temperature change

Wasted energy output = 3926 - 6.2805 = 3919J

Wasted energy output= Energy input – Useful Energy output

Energy → Light energy + Heat energy

Efficiency = 6.2805 ÷ 3926 x 100 = 0.16%

Efficiency=Useful energy output ÷ Energy input

Useful energy→ light

Wasted energy→ heat

Input energy→ electricity

Output energy→ light+ heat

Electrical energy→ light+ heat

Method-Experiment 2

In this experiment we ran a current through an aluminium block and recorded the temperature change of 10°C. The procedure was the same as experiment 1 as it used an immersion heater to heat up the aluminium block and then record its mass.

Experiment 2Aluminium Block

 Data Start Temperature (°C) 23 Final Temperature (°C) 33 Current (A) 3.78 Voltage (V) 9.63 Time (S) 328

Energy input = 9.63 x 3.78 x 328 = 11940J

Energy Input= Current x Voltage x Time

Energy output = 1.0046 x 913 x 10 = 9171.998J

Useful energy output= Mass x Specific heat capacity x Temperature change

Useful energy output = 9.0414J

Electrical energy → Heat energy Efficiency = 9171.998 ÷ 11940 x 100 = 77%

Useful energy output ÷ energy input x 100

Energy input= Electrical.

Output= heat.

Useful= heat.

Middle

Average= 40 seconds

Energy input= gravitational potential energy.

Output= kinetic energy+ heat+ sound.

Useful= kinetic energy.

Wasted= heat+ sound.

Energy input = 0.1 x 9.81 x 0.24 = 23.544J

Energy input= Mass x Gravity x Height

Energy output= 0.5 x 0.1 x (2.22 ÷ 0.4)2 = 1.54J

Energy output= 0.5 x Mass x Velocity²=0.5 x Mass (distance ÷ Time)²

Useful energy output = 1.54J

Gravitational potential energy → Kinetic energy + Heat energy

Efficiency = 1.54 ÷ 23.544 = 1.17864424%

Efficiency= Energy output ÷ Energy input

Method-Experiment 4

In this experiment we used electricity and timed how long it took to lift 800g mass from the bottom of the floor to the top on string. We recorded the voltage, mass of crane, length of string, and time it took to travel from the bottom to the top of it.

Experiment 4Crane (repeated 3 times)

 Experiment 4 Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Current(A) 0.17 0.16 0.17 Voltage(V) 8.34 8.18 7.96 Mass (g) 800 800 800 Length of string(cm) 145 145 145 Time (S) 17 18 19

Input= electrical.

Useful energy= gravitational potential energy.

Wasted= heat and sound.

Output= heat+ sound+ gravitational potential energy.

Energy input = 0.17 x 8.34 x 17 = 24J

Energy input= Current x Voltage x Time

Energy output = 0.8 x 9.81 x 1.45 = 11.38J

Electrical energy → Kinetic energy + Heat energy → Gravitational potential energy + Heat energy

Efficiency = 11.38 ÷ 24 x 100 = 47.42%

Method-Experiment 5

In this last experiment we poured 500ml of water and timed how fast it took to get to the bottom. In the second part we put the tap on slowly and held the pipe in the funnel and timed it making sure the voltmeter and ammeter are on.

Experiment 5- Water Wheel

Energy input= (() × 0.5) × 9.81× height (1m).

Energy output = 0.3× 10.5× 10= 31.5J

Gravitational potential energy → Kinetic energy + Heat energy → Electrical energy + Heat energy.

Efficiency = 31.5%

 Part 1-500ml Part 2-Tap stream Time of water (S) 16 10 Current (A) 0.48 0.3 Voltage (V) 16.8 10.5 Mass of water(g) 500 312.5

Conclusion

is a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to create and the problem with this is that coal is running out fast, so once it has run out then there is no other way for us to do many of the things we do and use daily without coal. Lastly, bio fuels, including ethanol, are clean-burning, biodegradable and made from renewable resources. In addition to being used as fuel for transportation, bio fuel can be converted to other useful forms of energy, including methane gas and heat.

These different methods of energy production, show exactly how efficient they are, and which energy source is more efficient than the other. In comparison, I would say that the wind energy is one of the most reliable meanings saving coast, being renewable etc, but for generating electricity I would say that the hydro electric power is the most efficient. The reason for this is because Hydro-electric power, using the potential energy of rivers, now supplies 17.5% of the world's electricity, this shows how useful it is and also because it is available in many forms, potential energy from high heads of water retained in dams, kinetic energy from current flow in rivers and tidal barrages, and kinetic energy also from the movement of waves on relatively static water masses. This is why I would use this method for generating electricity.

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