• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Give an Account of ATP Production in Living Organisms

Extracts from this document...


Give an Account of ATP Production in Living Organisms All cells must do work to stay alive and maintain their cellular environment. The energy needed for cell work comes from the bonds of ATP. Cells obtain their ATP by oxidizing organic molecules, a process called cellular respiration. Glucose is the primary fuel molecule for the cells of living organisms. Every living organism must do cell respiration. Most eukaryotic organisms are aerobic. Aerobic respiration is required in order to obtain enough energy (ATP) from the oxidations of fuel molecules to survive. In aerobic respiration glucose is broken down into water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is required as the final electron acceptor for the oxidations. C6H12O6 + 6O2 ? 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP Not all cell respiration is aerobic. ...read more.


The hydrogen atoms lost from it are taken up by NAD to produce NADH + H+. This process is exothermic and enough energy is released to produce 4 molecules of ATP. This is known as substrate level phosphorylation. If oxygen is available to do aerobic respiration, the pyruvate molecules will be oxidized in the next stages of aerobic respiration. The reactions of aerobic respiration after glycolysis occur in the mitochondria and include the link reaction, the Kreb's cycle and electron transport chain. If oxygen is not available, the pyruvate molecules will proceed with fermentation. At this stage in anaerobic respiration no more ATP is used or produced in the rest of the process. Therefore, in total, anaerobic respiration produces only 4 molecules of ATP, but uses 2 in the creation of hexose bisphosphate. ...read more.


Each NADH + H+ molecule produces 3 molecules of ATP. 2 molecules of NADH + H+ are produced in both glycolysis and the link reaction and 6 molecules are produced in the Kreb's cycle. Therefore, 30 molecules of ATP are produced from the oxidation of the 10 molecules of NADH + H+. FADH + H+ produces only 2 molecules of ATP. In total 2 molecules of FADH + H+ are produced, both in the Kreb's cycle. Therefore, with the 4 molecules of ATP produced by FADH + H+ in oxidative phosphorylation, and the 30 by NADH + H+ as well as the 4 molecules of ATP produced in earlier stages, a total of 38 molecules of ATP are produced by aerobic respiration. This is 36 more than that produced in anaerobic respiration. This shows why aerobic respiration is so more effective at producing energy than anaerobic respiration and, therefore, why it is used the majority of the time by eukaryotic organisms. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    'An investigation into the ability of two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...

    4 star(s)

    As a result of the environmental demands placed upon the Narbonne strain, a higher tolerance to acidic conditions is likely to be a characteristic which differentiates it from strains not specialised in the fermentation of wine. The carbon source provided will ultimately be used within the cytoplasm of the yeast cells, during glycolysis.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How is ATP produced and used in living organisms?

    4 star(s)

    of anaerobic respiration is only two ATP. Mammals who need to respire anaerobically produce lactic acid. This process occurs by the three carbonic sugar Pyruvate being reduced into Lactic acid by the addition of the hydrogen ion from reduced NAD.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    * The inside layer of an artery is very smooth because it's allowing the blood to flow quickly. * The outside layer of an artery is very strong because it's allowing the blood to flow forcefully. * The oxygen-rich blood enters the capillaries where the oxygen and nutrients are released.

  2. VO2 Max and Aerobic Power.

    The speed that the subject sustains (i.e. the speed before the speed that the subject stops on) is known as the Maximum Aerobic Speed (MAS) and is measured in kmh-1. Once we have the MAS, we can work out the VO2 max in the following formula: VO2 max = 31 + 3.2 x (MAS - Subject's Age [years])

  1. How ATP is produced in both the chloroplast and mitochondria.

    (Stryer (1995)). As the electrons move through the ETC they are used to reduce successive electron carriers, which are oxidised when they move on (redox reactions), until they are passed on to oxygen. The electron carriers are redox pairs, like NADH and NAD+; for example cytochrome b contains iron at different oxidation states.

  2. What is Bernoulli’s Principle? Give examples of its diverse ‘use’ or ‘exploitation’ in ...

    The fluid will speed up in the narrow sections (by the continuity principle), and so it will exert the least pressure in those areas were the diameter is smallest. This is known as a Venturi Tube. If a small pressure-measuring device is connected between the two areas this can be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work