How Aids affects world population
What is Aids, and does it affect World population?
Aids are the mutation of a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus). HIV infects cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. The main type of cell that HIV infects is the T helper lymphocyte. These cells play an important role in our immune system, by coordinating the actions of other immune system cells. When there is a large reduction of T helper cells, the immune system is severely weakened. HIV infects the T helper cell because it has the protein CD4 on its surface; HIV uses it to attach itself to the cell before gaining entry. This is why the T helper cell is sometimes referred to as a CD4+ lymphocyte. Once it is inside the cell, HIV makes new copies of itself, which can then go on to infect other cells. In time HIV infection leads to a severe reduction in the number of T helper cells available to help fight disease. This may take several years. 1.
Helper T Cells.
Helper T cells are T lymphocytes that belong to the CD4+ subset. These cells have a number of direct functions but they get their name from the help provide to other types of effectors cells, such as B cells and cytotoxi T lymphocytes AKA CTLs. The help secreted cytokines that simulate the helped cells. 2
Transmission of HIV:
HIV is found in the sexual fluids of an infected person. For males, this means the pre-come and semen fluids that come out through the penis before or during sexual intercourse. For Females, it means the virus is in the vaginal fluids that are created by the vagina to it clean and to aid through intercourse.
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If fully developed man with HIV was to have sexual intercourse through the vagina without any protection, (condom) then HIV virus is passed into the woman’s body through the lining of the vagina, cervix, and womb. The risk of being infected by the virus is increased if the woman has a cut or sore inside or around her vagina, this allows easier access for the virus to enter the woman’s bloodstream. Not all are visible to the naked eye, and could be too small to notice.
Likewise if a fully developed female, infected with HIV virus was to have sextual intercourse without a condom, the HIV virus could gain access into the body through a sore patch on his reproduction organ or by into his urethra (the tube running down the penis) or the inside of his foreskin.
Anal sex (receptive anal intercourse) carries more risk of HIV transmission than receptive vaginal intercourse. The lining of the anus is much more delicate thant the lining of the vagina, so is more at risk to be damged during sex. Contact with blood during sex incresses the risk of infection. 3
The graph shows HIV infections through Sexual Contact since Q4 of 1996. There many ways someone can be infected with HIV but the graph lists only three: heterosexual; homosexual and bisexual. ‘Heterosexual: a person who has sexual relations with the opposite sex.’4 The graph shows heterosexuals are more likely to be infected by HIV. There is an increase in the people being infected by HIV, the line gradualy goes up but between 1998-2002 the graph abruptly went up. ‘Homoesexual: a person sexually attracted to persons of the same sex. Homosexuals include males (gays) and females(lesbians)’5. There is a difference between homosexuals and heterosexuals, less homosexuals are infected by HIV, the graph shows a slight increses in people being infected by HIV. Bisexual infections are the lowest of the three.
The graph above shows ‘Cumulative HIV infection among injecting Drug Users since Q4 of 1996’ the graph also shows people tested with people with AIDS. Just like the first graph between 1996-2002 again there is a tremendous increses for HIV infections. The people found positive of jus AIDS are much more fewer than HIV, but then there is an increase from 1998-2002.
How HIV/AIDS affects human population.
The aids virus is one of the most destructive health crises of the 19th century, destroing families and communities through out the world. It was estimated by 2005 more than 25 million people had died and an estimate of 39 million were lliving with HIV. About 4 million(estimated) people were newley infercted with HIV. In the year 2005, 95 percent of them in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe or Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa was the hardest hit, other regions also face serious AIDs epidemics.
Benefits for HIV/AIDS - Studies have shown participation in sports benefits the HIV/AIDS person both mentally physically. Benefits include a delay in HIV morbidity between sports groups or part takers. There is a possiblity of cardiac capacity among participants and a possitive correlation between psychological parameters and physical training. Studies (psychological) show that sports activities reduces the chance of depression, fatigue and anger. 6
Economy- There arent any real benefits for H.I.V aids instead business and agriculture, economic stability is also affected. Employers are heavely affected a loss of workers, the ever incresing cost of health care benefits including the AIDS drugs which are very expensive, due to the rise in deaths partners and children are compensated. Small farms and commercial agriculture is also affected severly due to loss of farm workers. In 3rd world countries, a study showed that between 10 percent and 26 percent by 2020 will have been hit badly by HIV/AIDS causing agriculrual workers to reduce workload.
Household- Not only does HIV/AIDS affect the economy but also households. Households are immedtiatly impacted, once infected by HIV/AIDS a person’s ability to care , support and provide for his or her family is limited due to the severity of the pain. When the reguraly source of income dies for example the parent the household may deterioate children and other people living in the house will have to sustain income in the house most children are sent to to care or relatives the unfortunate ones would have to fend for themselves.
Health care systems- experince huge demands as HIV/AIDS spreads, casuing destraction in many 3rd world countries, the epidemic has enormous impact on African and Asian systems where their health care systems are not up to scratch. This is a concern because it diverts attention to HIV/AIDS leaving other health problems,and in this current economic climate less people are treated resulting to more deaths.
HIV/AIDS and stigmas- Not only does HIV/AIDS affect the human body physically it also affects it psychologicaly. Aids stigma is another word for how peope label individuals which are found positive of HIV/AIDS. Victims are rejected by the public, family, peers and wider community. This affects the person psychologicaly because hes rejected by society. Sometimes people don’t want to eat or share with them for example, cups, cutlery sets. People don’t want to socialise with them, they therefore dont want to go for treatment. Aids stigma and discrimination coincide with other forms of stigma and descrimination, such as racism , homophobia or misogyn and are directed towards people involved in what is considered as socially unacceptable activites such as prostituion or drug use.
Stigma does’nt only make it difficult for people to accept they have HIV and need to treatment on a personal level, this also interferes with the attempt to fight and stop the spread of AIDS as a whole. 7
The effects of a physical activity program on HIV-positive men and women.
Reussner D; Kraus MF; Lamwersiek H
7. United Nations, The Impact of AIDS: 63.