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In this experiment, you will investigate some of the important chemical properties of acids and bases.

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Introduction

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES In this experiment, you will investigate some of the important chemical properties of acids and bases. This practical will be assessed for Data Collection, Data Analysis and Evaluation. Equipment required Bunsen burner Dropper Test tubes (6) Taper and matches Hydrochloric acid [HCl] 2mol L (30ml) Sodium Hydroxide solution [NaOH] 2mol L (30ml) Lime Water [Ca(OH)2] (20ml) Vinegar [3 - 4% CH3COOH] Two pea sized aluminium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc About 1g each of: Copper (II) oxide [CuO] Sodium Hydrogencarbonate [NaHCO3] Ammonium Chloride [NH4Cl] Calcium Carbonate (marble chips) [CaCO3] Sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate) [Na CH3COOH] Sodium sulphide [Na2S] Sodium sulphite [Na2SO3] Blue litmus paper Red litmus paper Stopper fitted with gas delivery tube A Effect of Acids and Bases on Litmus #1 Place a drop of 2 mol L HCl onto pieces of red and blue litmus paper. Repeat using 2 mol L NaOH. B Reaction of Bases with Metals #1 Place pea sized pieces of Mg, Zn, Al, and Cu into separate test tubes. Add 2 - 3 ml of 2 mol L HCl to each. If there is no sign of reaction warm the mixture carefully. #2 If a gas is evolved, collect it by inverting another test tube over the mouth of the reaction tube. ...read more.

Middle

2. The Red Litmus Paper turns Blue when it reacts with NaOH and the Blue Litmus remains the same. Part B 1. Magnesium - it reacts very fast and no heating is required. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 2. Zinc - reaction proceeds without heating. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 3. Aluminum - reaction requires heating. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 4. Copper - reaction does not occur even when heated. Part D When HCl is added to CuO and heated, it turns green Part E 1. CaCO3 - Limewater turns milky, gas evolved 2. NaHCO3 - Limewater turns milky fast, gas evolved 3. Na2S - Exothermic Reaction, gas evolved 4. Na2SO3 - Endothermic, slightly pungent smelling gas evolved 5. CH3COONa - Vinegar smell gas after heating Part F 1. On adding blue litmus to 10 drops of 2mol L HCL. Blue litmus paper turned pink. 2. On adding 20 drops of 2mol L NaOH and the litmus paper turned back to blue. Part G 1. Blue Litmus paper turns red when tested with the gas 2. The gas has a pungent odor. Data analysis: Part A: An indicator is a weak acid or base in which the dissociated form is a different color to the undissociated form. ...read more.

Conclusion

This gas can be identified by its pungent odor. When sodium sulfite is made to react with hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide is released which has a pungent odor. Na2SO3 + HCl ==> NaCl + H2O + SO2 When ethanoates are made to react with acids, they release methane and carbon dioxide gas. When sodium ethanoate is made to react with hydrochloric acid, a these gases are released. CH3COONa + HCl ==> NaCl + CH4 + CO2 Part F: Acids react with bases to form salt and water. These reactions are called neutralization reactions. When litmus paper is added to the strong acid initially, the blue litmus paper turns red. However, when sodium hydroxide is added, the litmus paper turns back to blue. This is because the sodium hydroxide neutralizes the acid and increases the pH of the solution. HCl + NaOH ==> NaCl + H2O Part G: When cations of weak bases are made to react with strong bases, the more reactive ions displace the less reactive ones to release a gas. In this reaction, the sodium ions displace the ammonium ions and methane gas is released which has a pungent odor. NaOH + NH4Cl ==> NaCl + H2O + NH3 Conclusion: In this lab, we tested and observed the various chemical properties of acids and bases. We also learnt the ways in which gases release can be tested. The lab helps us understand the chemical properties of acids and bases clearly through practical application. ...read more.

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