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movement in sports

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Kishan Gosai 12PP

Movement In Sports Coursework


The aim of this coursework is to construct a practical experiment that will determine the amount of force of a specific muscle chosen in the human body. This was carried out in the classroom with a reconstruction of a model.

Scientific Information

Mechanical Advantage (MA) is the factor by which a machine multiplies the force put into it. The mechanical advantage can be calculated for the following simple machines by using the following formulas: the force of load divided by the force of effort.[1]Using this formula, we can reach different conclusions. An example would be that if the mechanical advantage is big then the effort needed would be small therefore making the load easier to lift. On the other hand, if the mechanical advantage were small then the effort needed would be big therefore making it harder to lift.

Velocity Ratio (VR) is simply calculated within the distance of the effort and load. Velocity Ratio is the difference between the distance to the effort and the distance to the load. We can use the formula of velocity ratio, which is: the distance to the load divided by the distance to effort.[2]

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Risk Assessment

This risk assessment is not based on the actual experiment, as it does not contain any severe risks however; the apparatus being used has potential dangers if not used properly. These would be:

  • The equipment being used should be correctly set up. By doing this, you can prevent any harm to yourselves and others.
  • The weights used should be handled with care otherwise, it could cause damage to either yourselves or others if it falls on someone. It could also damage school property.
  • To avoid dropping the weights, extra attention should be taken to check whether the hoops are tied on properly.
  • Keep distance between yourselves and fellow classmates to allow a good working area for yourselves and others. This will limit the chances of someone getting hurt.
  • Handle equipment with extra care to prevent any damage to the equipment itself and other school property.
  • Make sure clamp stand is properly secured to the chair or table otherwise could cause serious damage to others or property.


I predict that the mechanical advantage will increase, as the position of the ruler will move away from the pivot and the velocity ratio will decrease.


  • Using the apparatus stated above, set up the clamp stand positioning the boss and clamp at the top.
  • Put the clipped roller halfway on the clamp bar.
  • Using another boss, attach it to the clamp stand and connect it through the meter ruler.
  • Collect a piece of string and tie a hoop on both ends, making sure it is secure.
  • Put the string through the clipped roller and then attach it on the meter ruler with the hooks.
  • Whilst one end of the string is attached to the ruler, using the other end, attach a mass to it and keep adding more mass on until it lifts up the ruler.
  • Keep repeating this process while moving the string at different distances on the ruler.
  • Record the results.
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Looking at my results and graphs, I felt that the experiment went exceptionally well however there was basis for improvements. During the experiment, errors that had occurred were the limited use of equipment. To elaborate, there was not enough equipment for the whole class therefore some pupils had to wait their turns and equipment kept exchanging hands on a regular basis. The effect this had on the experiment was it would have caused the distance to change. Another error that had occurred was the rulers. They had nails inserted into them at each cm but were not placed accurately therefore had to keep changing rulers which prolonged the experiment. Finally, the weights were not as accurate as they could have been which would have had a knock on effect on the results.

In order to make the equipment more accurate, I would make sure there are accurate weights, which would have given me better results. In addition, I would have more equipment therefore; the quickness of the experiment is still preserved. Most importantly, I would make sure all the equipment is accurate which provides better results.

To test the work further, I would conduct an experiment with different shapes to determine whether they have an effect on the results.

[1] http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-machine.html

[2] http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/2D7-velocity_ratio.html

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