Outline different methods of separating substances.

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Chromatography- this is used for separating mixtures of coloured compounds, the mixtures that are used to be separate in chromatography includes liquids like dyes, ink and most commonly colouring agents in food. Chromatography is carried out on a single piece of paper is used where a small sample is placed at the bottom of the paper where it is then placed vertically in a solvent such as water where it soaks up the paper and carries the sample with it, it allows the mixtures to separate at different rates, so it just allows the “industry” to identify the different compounds in the mixture.

Distillation- (simple) this is where a liquid is separated from a solution, commonly used to purify water to make it distilled where it is separated from the salty water, it is where the solution is heated up and the water evaporates from the solution, and goes in to a different container where it is firstly cooled and condensed, the salt from the solution cannot be carried so it is left behind, so to sum it up it is the process of “purifying” a substance by the process of heating and cooling.

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Precipitation- it is when a transition metal compound is mixed with a sodium hydroxide solution which leads to a displacement reaction, since sodium is more reactive then transitional metals so it takes over the transition metal place/position from the compound, the substance produced at the end of this in any case is always a transition metal hydroxide, it is also insoluble where it is a solid in the liquid so it is called a “precipitate”.

Centrifugation- this another method to separate substances but uses centrifugal force to separate the mixture with a “centrifuge” commonly used in industry and science labs, the machine ...

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