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Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body.

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P2 ? Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body. TISSUES A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and from the same origin, which together carry out a specific function. There four types of tissues in the human body, which provides diverse functions. The four main types of tissue are: Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces, it also forms glands. These cells have different functions such as protection, sensation, secretion, absorption, and excretion, diffusion, cleaning and reducing friction. It is classified by the number of cells layers and the shape of surface cells. Types of Epithelial Tissues Simple Epithelial cells may be Squamous, cuboidal, columnar or ciliated. Simple Squamous cells: They have the appearance of thin, flat plates which allows rapid movement of substances. They tend to have horizontal flattened, elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. They form the lining of cavities such as the mouth, blood vessels, and heart and air-sacs lungs and make up the outer layers of the skin. Cuboidal cells: They are roughly square or Cuboidal in shape. Cuboidal cells may have microvilli and are responsible for secretion or absorption. Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well in the ducts of the glands. ...read more.


It consists of different types of blood cells: Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Is a very small cell with an elastic membrane, whose function is to transport Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in the blood. Red blood cells do not have a nucleus. It contains an iron-rich protein called haemoglobin which gives the cell the reddish colour. White blood cells (leukocytes) These cells are larger, nucleated and less numerous. They made up part of the immune system. These cells defend the body against infections assisting in the production of antibodies. Platelets (thrombocytes) They are products of much larger cells that have broken up. These cells have an important role in blood clotting. Plasma (the matrix) It consists of 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones and waste products. Cartilage Cartilage is an elastic, flexible, firm, tough and translucent substance. It is composed of closely packed collagenous fibers. No nerves or blood vessels occur in the cartilage. It can be found in the knee joint, between spinal vertebra, in the nose and in the ear flaps. The skeleton of humans is composed of cartilage. It provides strength and flexibility also protects the bones ends from friction during movement. Bone Bone is a harder substance that can be worn away by friction. Bone is a part of the skeletal system. It consists of calcium salts and collagen fibres. Bone can be either compact or spongy, it depends on how the cell and matrix are organised. ...read more.


A single skeletal muscle cell is long and cylindrical in shape, with many nuclei located at the edges of the cell. Skeletal Muscle tissues are attached to bones. Skeletal muscle tissues are voluntary, which means that can be made to contract or relax by conscious control. It roles include the movement of the skeleton, under conscious control, including movement of limbs, fingers, toes and neck also the movement of tissues of facial expression under conscious control e.g. the ability to smile and to frown. Cardiac Muscle Tissue Cardiac muscle tissues are striated, involuntary in action and branched. This tissue is found only in the wall of the heart. Cells are joined by one another via intercalated an disc, which allows the synchronization of the heart beat. Its main function is to pump blood to all parts of the body from the heart. Smooth Muscle Tissue, Non-striated Smooth muscle tissues are made up of thin-elongated muscle cells that have one centrally located nucleus. It forms the muscle layers in the walls of hallow organs such as digestive tract, the walls of the bladder, the uterus, various ducts of glands and the walls of blood vessels. Contractions of smooth muscle constrict they surround. This is particularly important in the digestive system in which the action of smooth muscle helps to move food along the gastrointestinal tract as well as breaking the food down further. Smooth muscle also contributes to moving fluids through the body and to the elimination of indigestible matter from the gastrointestinal system. ...read more.

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