• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

paper cones investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation Report

Aim

Theory

When an object is dropped in air, it accelerates. If it is allowed to drop far enough then it can reach its terminal velocity. This is the maximum velocity of the object during its fall and occurs when the upward force of air resistance acting on the object equals the weight of the object.

So at terminal velocity...

image00.png

(P.31, Complete Physics, 1999, Pople, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-914734-5)

(P.33, Physics 1, 2000, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78718-1)

Looking for a formula for air resistance...

image01.png

F = force of air resistance

ρ = density of air = 1.2kgm-3

c = coefficient of drag for the object / dimensionless

A = cross-sectional area of object hitting the air / m2

v = velocity of the object / ms-1

(http://damonrinard.com/aero/formulas.htm)

Looking for a formula for the weight of an object...

W = m.g

W = weight / N

m = mass / kg

g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81Nkg-1

(P.55, Physics, 1991, Robert Hutchings, Nelson, ISBN 0-17-438510-2)

So putting these formulae together...

image05.png

From the Physics AS course,

image06.png

v = velocity

x = displacement

t =  time

so

image07.png

References to the specification

Forces and Motion 2821

Forces, Fields and Energy 2824

Aim of your investigation

...read more.

Middle

Equipment list

        A4 Paper

        Scissors

Selotape

Bluetak (approx 50g)

Metre rule (giving a resolution of ±1mm appropriate for measuring, h.)

        Stopwatch (giving a resolution of ±0.01s appropriate for measuring t.)

        Electronic Balance

(giving a resolution of ±0.001g appropriate for measuring m.)


Results

        Raw results tables including absolute uncertainties

        Tables of calculated values e.g. means, percentage uncertainties

m / kg

t1 / s

t2 / s

t3 / s

Mean t / s

Range in t / s

Uncertainty in t

% uncertainty in t

%Uncertainty in m

0.003

2.60

2.66

2.77

2.68

0.17

0.09

3

17

0.004

2.22

2.50

2.33

2.35

0.28

0.14

6

13

0.005

1.87

1.83

1.72

1.81

0.15

0.07

4

10

0.006

1.64

1.81

2.11

1.85

0.47

0.23

13

8

0.007

1.93

1.57

1.50

1.67

0.43

0.22

13

7

0.008

1.49

1.68

1.79

1.65

0.30

0.15

9

6

0.009

1.68

1.51

1.26

1.49

0.42

0.21

14

6

0.01

1.20

1.22

1.43

1.28

0.23

0.11

9

5

0.011

1.56

1.15

1.54

1.42

0.41

0.21

15

5

0.012

1.42

1.19

1.16

1.26

0.26

0.13

10

4

0.013

1.32

1.33

1.41

1.36

0.09

0.04

3

4

0.014

1.30

1.20

1.02

1.17

0.28

0.14

12

4

0.015

1.24

1.29

0.95

1.16

0.34

0.17

15

3

0.016

1.01

0.94

1.29

1.08

0.35

0.18

16

3


Analysis

        Raw graphs of results

image10.png

The trend shown here confirms a non-linear relationship between time and mass. It is consistent with a inverse relationship of some form.

There are no anomalous results to be dealt with.

...read more.

Conclusion

Range of measurements and the number of readings taken

The range of measurements was limited to masses of a few grams. Clearly this limits the confirmation of the prediction to within this range. A larger range of masses would be required to confirm the relationship outside of the readings taken.

The number of readings taken (3 per independent value) was sufficient to enable an indication of the uncertainties in the measurement of time. A larger number of repeats (>30) would be required for a statistically significant sample to be taken to confirm the random nature of the uncertainties and their distribution.

Combined Uncertainty for the experiment

Using a simple sum of percentage uncertainties we get a worst case value of :

±32% (time) + ±17% (mass) + ±5% (drop distance) = ±54%

Note: the time uncertainty of ±16% is doubled because of the t2 nature of the relationship.

Validity of the results

The largest percentage difference between a data point and the best fit line for t2 versus m-1 was ±23%. This is more than accounted for by the combined worst case uncertainty for the experiment of ±54%.

Hence the results do indicate that the predicted relationship is plausible.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Fields & Forces section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Response to the question

The writer has approached the investigation well. As a result, the writer has produced a well written report. All of the writers objectives have been clearly covered, therefore making their report clear and easy to follow. It was good that ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The writer has approached the investigation well. As a result, the writer has produced a well written report. All of the writers objectives have been clearly covered, therefore making their report clear and easy to follow. It was good that the writer was able to explore the theory behind the experimentation taking place. It was also good that the writer was able to explore ways to reduce error by carrying out a preliminary investigation, this being explained during the writers conclusion. Overall, this is a high quality report.

Level of analysis

The language that the writer used is of a high standard. The area that the writer has investigated is not fully covered within the syllabus, but it's good that the writer was able to gain suitable information on the area within the research that they did. The writer used the correct terminology with regards to experimentation and the scientific background.

Quality of writing

Spelling and grammar are of a high standard. The presentation of the report is clear and done to a really high standard.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by cpdavis 13/03/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Fields & Forces essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment to determine gravity from a spring using digital techniques

    3 star(s)

    For this reason, just the calibration uncertainty will be taken as the uncertainty for the period. The percentage uncertainty for period is calculated, and this is doubled, because uncertainty doubles when the period is squared. When this is calculated, it is found that the uncertainty in each value is 1%,

  2. The experiment involves the determination, of the effective mass of a spring (ms) and ...

    using the value of ms which applies to the lines joining up the error bars, First the lower value of and m are used, ms = ?m ms = 0.14 Then the higher value of m are used, ms = ?m ms = ?0.0507 The differences between these values and

  1. Experiment to determine gravity from a spring using analogue techniques

    would hit the table when it was displaced the 0.04m for it's equilibrium position. Instead, the mass on this spring went from 0.01kg to 0.04kg in 0.01kg increments. * Graphs were then created of period squared against mass for each spring, and the spring constant for each spring could be calculated as previously shown.

  2. Experiment test for F = m2L by whirling a rubber bung (centripetal force)

    is independent of L and ? ? is depending on the ratio of the mass of rubber bung to the mass of the screw nuts. 4. Centripetal force = m?2L sin ? ? m & M are constant ?

  1. Stopping distance Investigation.

    I will also conduct another investigation, where I increase the mass of the trolley each time, but by adding another trolley on top of it. The average trolley weighs about 815g, and so I will be increasing the mass of the trolley by roughly 815g each time, all the way up to 3 trolleys piled on top of each other.

  2. The Physics of Curling

    Prominent physicist, Mark Shegelski, has actually spent a substantial amount of time, who also devotes a lot of his time researching quantum tunneling and decay, studies how physics applies to the sport of curling.

  1. The physics of riding a bicycle entails many different properties.

    When you ride a bike, you are defying gravity. Energy plays a very important role when riding a bicycle. In order for a bike to move there must be energy. There are two types of energy; potential and kinetic. When I am on my bike at the top of the hill I have potential energy.

  2. Use the following terms correctly in describing the forces and elements of a roller ...

    So in other words, the potential energy that was stored is released as kinetic energy, which increases with speed, and also takes you down the hill. Say there is another hill after the first. The kinetic energy would propel the cart up the hill, building up potential energy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work