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Phylogenetic tree - in 1866, Ernst Haeckel introduced the phylogenetic tree, or the tree of life. Until now, the theory about the existence of tree of life is still strong in most people thought. But in fact, is this the phylogenetic tree really exist? If

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Universal phylogenetic tree In 1859, when Darwin published his most famous book: Origin of Life, it started the era of the theory of evolution. As we know, Darwinism proposes that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called NATURAL SELECTION. According to that theory, life developed from a single common ancestor and evolved gradually into a multitude of different species through the chain of small changes under the varying environment condition. That means the differences between species and the increasing complexity in the organism must occur in parallel over time. In short, life must be like a tree, with a common root and then split into many different branches. Thus, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel introduced the phylogenetic tree, or the tree of life. Until now, the theory about the existence of tree of life is still strong in most people thought. But in fact, is this the phylogenetic tree really exist? If not, is Darwin wrong? The key point for the theory of the tree of life is homology. ...read more.


Their tooth evolution was continuing. Approximately 40 - 24 million years ago, in the late Eocene and Oligocene, the species Mesohippus appears suddenly with the back was less arched, longer legs, the snout and face distinctively longer. Mesohippus had 3 toes on its hind and front feet and the 4th front toe was reduced to a vestigial nubbin and still had padded - footed. Soon after Mesohippus, a similar animal called Miohippus arose and their fossil record began to show a variable extra crest on its upper cheek teeth. Came to the Miocene, Miohippus began to split into 3 lines: small pygmy horses (not survive), 3-toed browsers called "anchitheres (they were very successful, spread into the Old World and thrived for tens of millions of years. They retained the small, simple teeth of Miohippus) and a line that changing their form to survive in the grassland which were just beginning to appear, open the era for grass - eater and also evolved the long legs for running in grassland. As the third line of Miohippus in the Miocene, the horse's tooth crown grew out of the gum and became harder to develop the cement layer. ...read more.


In the future, will we have one more Cambrian explosion? That is a very complex question for us from now. (1841 words) Reference list: Charles Darwin and Natural Selection, Minnesota State University Mankato. Available from: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/evolution/history/darwin.html Doolittle W.F. (2000), Uprooting the Tree of Life, Scientific American 282 (2), 90 - 95. Available from: http://people.ibest.uidaho.edu/~bree/courses/2_Doolittle_2000.pdf Gould Stephen J. (1994). The Evolution of Life on the Earth, Scientific American Available from: http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Gould_Evolution-of-Life.pdf Hunt, Kathleen (1995) Horse Evolution. Available from: http://www.godslasteraar.org/assets/ebooks/Hunt_Kathleen_Horse_Evolution.pdf Hsu, Karen; Kang, Myun; Lavarias, Amy & Prabaker, Kavitha (2000) The Cambrian Periods, University of California Museum of Paleontology, USA. Available from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html Levasseur Anthony; Pontarotti Pierre Pontarotti, Poch Olivier and Thompson Julie D.(2008) Strategies for Reliable Exploitation of Evolutionary Concepts in High Throughput Biology in Evolutionary Bioinformatics, France. Meyer, Stephen C., Nelson, P. A. and Chien Paul (2001) The Cambrian Explosion: Biology's Big Bang Wachman, Monica. What is Living fossil? Available from: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5799329_living-fossil_.html Woese C. (2000), Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree, PNAS 97(15), 8392 - 8396. Available from: http://www.pnas.org.cgi.reprint/97/15/8392.pdf Zhou, Z. & Zheng, S (2003) The missing link in Gingko evolution, 423, England: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, MACMILLAN BUILDING, pp821 - 822. ?? ?? ?? ?? Name: Tran Ngoc Thuy Linh Foundation Certificate in Biomedical Sciences Foundation Certificate in Biomedical sciences Fin number: G0930004Q Bioinformatics essay Batch code: FUBDO 1015A Universal phylogenetic tree ...read more.

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