Role of the RAF in second world war
"You ask, What is our policy? I will say; 'It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us: to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.' You ask, What is our aim? I can answer with one word: Victory - victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard the road may be; for without victory there is no survival.1" The Allied air forces based in Great Britain had numerous tactical advantages over the Luftwaffe. These included the use of anti-aircraft guns, the "home field advantage," preference in mission profiles, slight technological superiority, and the use of land-based radar. Ground-based anti-aircraft fire from friendly allied units provided support for allied fighter and caused another threat for Luftwaffe bombers. A statement issued by the Air Ministry on September 15, 1940 stated that four enemy aircraft were shot down by anti-aircraft fire by 2000 hours.2 Friendly anti-aircraft units provided an extra threat for the Luftwaffe, gave direct assistance to the Royal Air Force and were a psychological disadvantage for the Luftwaffe. When Allied fighter pilots were shot down during air battles, they had the ability to either eject or crash in friendly territory where local residents were willing to
Experiment to Find Acceleration due to Gravity
Experiment to Find Acceleration due to Gravity Aim The aim of my experiment is to measure the earth's gravitational field strength, which is also the acceleration due to gravity. This involves mass, which is the amount of matter an object contains and weight which is the force of gravity pulling down on an object with a mass. Mass is measured in Kg and weight is measured in Newton's. Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces, yet it is the dominant force in the universe for shaping the large scale structure of galaxies, stars, etc. The earth's gravitational field strength is calculated by the weight (N) / Mass (Kg), therefore the earth's gravitational field strength (g) is measured in (N/Kg). As an object is in free-fall it accelerates at the rate of g. Hypothesis Isaac Newton firstly discovered gravity when an apple fell on his head. He then discovered that every object has a mass and that two masses attract each other. This attraction has a gravitational field strength, Isaac Newton discovered that g = 9.81 N/Kg. This is now a well now fact and is accepted as the earth's gravitational field strength. Definitions Gravity Force The force of gravity is the force at which the earth, moon, or other massively large object attracts another object towards itself. By definition, this is the weight of the object. All objects upon earth experience a force of
Gravity, Electricity, and Magnetic Force.
Albert Einstein is one of the greatest physicists we know. He created the theory of relativity, and then worked to discover a theory of which unites all theories and rules of the world but couldn't make it. Today, many physicists and mathematicians are trying to find the theory and we are almost there but still farther from it. The theory of everything, scientists' dream, is called the grand unification theory. Whether you do or don't, I think most people have thought about how we are created, where the world comes from, or this kind of questions. These are all toward to the question about the beginning of the universe at the end. The origin of the universe is always wondrous and mysterious. It is the last question we can solve, maybe, because no one saw and experienced the creation from nothing. However we, physicists, challenge this and try to figure out it. The grand unification theory is scientists' dream. Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and James Clerk Maxwell are the most well-known physicists. They discovered many great theories and these discoveries developed physics and still apply to our world. Moreover these functions seem to relate each other. In our real world, there are basically 4 big forces of nature, which are Gravity, Electromagnetic, the Strong Force, and Weak Force. Gravity is a force act between all mass in the universe. Electromagnetic
The acceleration of a ball down various inclines
SCIENCE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH PROJECT THE ACCELERATION OF A SPHERE OVER DIFFERENT INCLINES PREPARED BY SARANG PALERI TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS . Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Aim 4. Hypothesis 5. Materials 6. Method 7. Results 8. Discussion 9. Conclusion PAGE NO. 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 9 0 ABSTRACT In this experiment, I constructed a project to test the change in velocity of a spherical object down a slope, and how that is affected by different inclines. I will record the time a ball takes to get to the bottom of a plank, measuring the times it takes to get to different intervals. The inclines I will be using to roll the ball down are at 2°, 4°, 6°, 8° and 10°. The control will be at 90°, as the only force acting on it is gravity. I will roll the ball down the plank 5 times at each angle, ruling out some random errors. The ball will be a Wilson Championship Heavy Duty 70g tennis ball. The plank can be any length, but it is preferable to use pine wood, as it is soft and is not undulating. The measurements are made with multiple stopwatches, to record times at each interval. The independent variable is change in incline angle, and the dependant variable is velocity down the plank. The acceleration of the ball is determined by further analysing these results. INTRODUCTION My Semester 2 Science Assessment Task requires me to research and investigate an
Science 1 Investigating thedeflection of a cantilever.
Science 1 Investigating the deflection of a cantilever. Plan In my experiment, I am investigating the deflection of a cantilever. Before we start our experiment, we have to gather the necessary equipment and apparatus together in order to start and complete our experiment. We will need the following:- * 1m ruler (x2). * 2x G- clamps. * One piece of string. * Masking tape and sticky tape. * 2 blocks of wood. * And finally 1k in 100g weights (100x10). Here is a diagram of our experiment. The meaning of deflection is the movement of a structure or a part of a structure when it is bearing a load. Once we have collected all the equipment needed to carry out the experiment, we need to first put it together and set it up. We do this by taking one of the 1m rulers and clamping it onto the end of the desk with a G- clamp. We also put some wood in-between the ruler and G- clamp, the reason for this is because we don't want the ruler and table being indented by the clamp. We found out that this could be the best thing to vary. The reasons for this is because we could choose whether to have the ruler further away from the desk and have it bend more or have it closer in to the desk and make it less bendy. Once we had done that, then we took another 1m ruler and taped it onto a retort stand. Then, finally we took one piece of ordinary string and tied it onto the 1m ruler
Of all of the early scientists of the scientific revolution I am most impressed by Sir Isaac Newton.
Of all of the early scientists of the scientific revolution I am most impressed by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton is important because he contributed more to the development of science than any other person in history. Isaac Newton is remembered as the greatest scientific genius who ever lived. His discoveries about physics, light, and mathematics changed the world. I am even more impressed by what he overcame to reach his goals. He came to surpass even his own expectations. I am more impressed with the man than with the discoveries. So many people in history are viewed as larger than life, which can be dehumanizing. Newton was very much a human with very human emotions. Isaac Newton came from a family of farmers. His father dies three months before he was born. Isaac's father was a wealthy landowner but was uneducated and could not even sign his own name. Isaac did not lead a privileged life; he was basically treated like an orphan. Isaac had a very unhappy childhood. Isaac is only ten when his grandfather, James, dies and James left him nothing in his will. There is also no doubt that Isaac felt very bitter towards his mother and stepfather. When he was reflecting on his sins at age 19 he wrote: "Threatening my father and mother to burn them and the house over them." Upon the death of his stepfather, Isaac lived with his extended family including his mother, grandmother,
Investigating the depression of a ruler when force is applied.
Investigating the depression of a ruler when force is applied Investigation: Measuring the depression of a ruler when force is acted upon it and when the length of overhang is altered. Planning First of all it was important before starting anything that the environment where the experiment was taking place was a safe one and that I was not in any danger whilst doing my investigation. I will make sure that the desk is clear with only the required apparatus present and also make sure that no more weight than 6N is put on the ruler otherwise it might snap and a splinter could come up into my eye. There are three independent variables in this experiment. These are the over-hang of the ruler, the mass added to the ruler and where the mass is positioned on the ruler. I will be investigating two of these independent variables, which are the alteration in overhang and the mass added to the end of the ruler. These will then produce a Dependant variable. This is the amount the ruler bends. For this experiment I will set up a one-meter ruler lying horizontally off the side of the work desk with a block of wood on top of it and a G Clamp holding it in place so it does not move. I will then add individual weights of 1 Newton to a piece of string hanging on the end of the overhanging ruler. I will measure the distance that the ruler has bent by using another ruler lying vertically
physics investigation- stopping distance
Physics Investigation Introduction In my investigation I intend to gather enough evidence and explanation to see if and how the mass of a ball will affect its stopping distance. I will carry out a series of tests starting with changing the mass of the ball then changing height which it's dropped from. Predictions I predict that the mass of a ball will most defiantly affect the distance it takes to stop because as the mass increases, the amount of friction with the surface will increase which will slow down the ball sooner. I believe if the mass of the ball is doubled the friction with the surface it's on will double and therefore half the distance taken to stop. Equipment For my investigation the equipment I will require is: * A ramp and stand ( 1 metre long) * Carpet (2 by 0.5 metres) * 2 balls of different masses but same size ( ball 1, 2.8g and ball 2, 44.9g) * 2 metre rules My setup My setup is pretty simple I will use a ramp with a rule along it and some carpet for the balls to roll along I will then use another rule to measure the distance taken to stop. When I first set up my equipment the balls where rolling around everywhere, to overcome this problem I decided to curl the carpet into a half bowl shape the balls then rolled smoothly down the ramp and along the carpet. Procedure Firstly I will drop the lighter ball 1, and measure its stopping distance
To determine the acceleration of gravity in a free fall experiment.
ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY AIM To determine the acceleration of gravity in a free fall experiment. DIAGRAM METHOD * The experiment is carried out using the apparatus, as set up above. * The switch is used to open and close one circuit at a time. * The distance for the ball to fall is measured between the ball and the trapdoor with a ruler; a set square is used to see where the ball coincides with the ruler, making it a more accurate measurement. * Adjusting the height of the trapdoor can change the distance. * When circuit A is closed the power supply travels to the electromagnet, which magnetises the ball. * The timer is set to zero. * As the switch is moved, braking circuit A and closing circuit B, the power supply is cut off to the electromagnet and the ball falls. The power supply now travels to the timer and timing commences. The two actions happen simultaneously. * When the ball falls through the trapdoor the circuit is broken and timing stops as there is no power supply. * The time shown on the timer represents how long it took for the ball to reach the trapdoor. * The experiment is repeated several times at different heights, with 2 readings for each height. * Results are put into a table showing the distance, times, an average time and a time. RESULTS Distance/m Time/s Time/s Av.Time/s Time/s 0.55 0.318 0.323 0.3205 0.103 0.521 0.320
Slide Mechanics Coursework
Slide Mechanics Coursework Introduction An object travels down a slide at distance l down the slide. The object then free-falls through a vertical distance h before hitting the ground. Obviously the greater l, the further the horizontal distance d that it lands away from the slide. The relationship between d and l for a particular angle of inclination q for the slide. Experimental and theoretical data will be compared to see if the relationship in practice is that of the predicted data. The aim of the experiment is to find the relationship between l and d for a given value of q. The Model An experimental model for the diagram shown above would be a slide on a table. A smooth object will travel down the slide and land on the floor with a precise measurable distance d. Before materials are named, certain modelling assumption will be made clear. Modeling Assumptions & Materials Taking into consideration that resistive forces must be minimal, or omitted altogether, in order for experimental and theoretical results to be compared with accuracy, suitable materials have to be used. Materials must have an appropriate arrangement and qualities to avoid such forces to effect results. Object The object that travels down the slide will be modelled as a particle with only one force acting on the object: its weight (mg). Any frictional forces will be ignored in preliminary