#### Springs and Simple Harmonice Motion.

Springs and Simple Harmonice Motion. The aim of my coursework is to investigate the properties of a spring when masses are suspended from it undergoing simple harmonic motion. The experiment was set up as follows: The length of the spring without a mass suspended from it was measured. A 0.05kg mass was then suspended from the spring and the spring was measured again. The length without mass was 0.164m and the length with 0.05kg suspended was 0.249m. Using this data I can work out that the extension of the spring was 0.085m (0.249 - 0.164). By using the formulas: F=ke and F=mg (F = Force(N), k = Spring constant, e = Extension(m), m = Mass(kg), g = acceleration due to gravity(ms-2)), and taking g as equal to 9.81 I can work out the spring constant (k) by doing the following: F = ke Rearrange formula to get k F/e = k I know that F = mg and e in this case is 0.085 m is 0.05kg and g is taken as 9.81ms-2 Therefore, F = 0.05 x 9.81 F = 0.4905N Having found F I can use this to work out k: k = F/e k = 0.4905 / 0.085 k = 5.77 (3sf) The spring constant in this case is 5.77. Using k I could predict the extension of this spring if the weight suspended from it was known or the weight suspended from it if the extension was known. However, as I have only done this experiment one time and not changed the mass at all I cannot be very sure that my results are accurate. To be

#### An investigation into the behaviour of springs inparallel when a mass is applied.

An investigation into the behaviour of springs in parallel when a mass is applied. Introduction: Springs are simple coils of wire that extend when a mass is applied to it, and if that mass does not stretch the spring beyond its elastic limit, then once the mass is removed then the spring should return to its previous position. Robert Hooke in the 1650's was the first scientist to carry out detailed experiments on springs, and in 1656 he published his work. All springs have one common characteristic shown on the graph below. [image001.gif] [image002.gif] [image003.gif] [image004.gif] Elastic Limit: this is the stage where a mass is applied and the spring extends and when the mass is removed then the spring returns to its rest position. Elastic Limit: this is the maximum length than a spring can be stretched to and then return to its rest position. Plastic Stage: this is the stage when the spring will not return to its rest position as the spring has been stretched beyond its limit. The graph above shows the behaviour of all springs when a load is applied. Between points O and E the line of the graph is straight through the origin. But between points E and A the line is curved and declines this is because the spring has been stretched beyond its elastic limit and can no longer return to its previous rest state. OE = Stretching Force [image005.gif]

#### Solar Panel Investigation

Solar Panel Investigation Physics Coursework Introduction This investigation will involve finding out about the effectiveness of a solar panel by moving it further away from the light source. We will look to see how the voltage created from the light source is received by the panel at differing distances. The variable for this investigation will therefore be distance from the light source. To do this properly we will need controls set, we will keep everything else the same, and these will be the constants within the investigation. The intensity of the light, the angle the light meets the panel, and the area of solar panel exposed to the light will remain the same. We will be measuring the voltage converted from light energy by the solar panel at a variety of distances ranging from 0-100cm. We will be using the following apparatus: * Clamp stand * Light bulb * Voltmeter * Black paper * Clamp * Solar panel * Meter ruler * Wires * Power pack The apparatus will be set up as in the diagram below: We will be measuring the voltage over distances from 0cm to 1 metre, measuring at 10cm intervals. These values will allow us to plot a graph from which we can clearly analyse the results. The results will be measured in the following table: Distance (in cm) Voltmeter reading (in volts) Voltmeter reading 2 (in volts) Voltmeter reading 3 (in volts) Average reading (in

#### Theories of the Universe

Theories of the Universe There are many theories on the topic of 'everything', but as physicists are simple folk they can only settle for one simple answer. Just one. Most theoretical physicists have believed that, ultimately, there must be just one possible universe, the physical manifestation of a set of laws so compelling that no other option would be viable. One universe. One theory. One defining way. It was a lovely idea, but increasingly it seems a fantasy. In recent years, theory and experiment are leading to the conclusion that, far from being the only option, our universe may be just one among an almost infinite array of possible worlds. It may be that ours is simply one member of a vast cosmological swarm. Several paths seem to be leading in this direction. The most notable is string theory, which is the leading contender for a so-called theory of everything. Many physicists are convinced that some version of string theory will prove to be the final description of all physical reality, unification under one mathematical umbrella of matter, force, space and time. As the name so charmingly implies, string theory proposes that, at its core, the universe is composed of minute strings. To get a sense of what this means, imagine a subatomic particle as a tiny point; now further imagine that, as you look closer, this point turns out to be a tiny closed loop, not a

#### The aim of my investigation is to see how each spring has been affected each time you add on a 100g on a spring.

By Emmet Murphy 11K Hooke's law AIM The aim of my investigation is to see how each spring has been affected each time you add on a 100g on a spring. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS In this investigation the following safety rules were applied: * Long hair was tied back to prevent it from getting in the way. * People were not cramped together as they needed room to work. * Goggles were worn to prevent eyes from getting damaged. * People could not play with equipment. * People could not run around in the science laboratory. * Desks were cleared. There were not to many strict safety precautions used, as the only potential danger was if the spring snapped. METHOD My method of experimentation will be to use a clamp stand and boss clamp to suspend a spring from. A second boss clamp will hold in place a metre rule starting from the bottom of the spring to measure extension in cm. I will then add weights to the spring and measure extension. As I am doing this, I will record my results in a table. I will continue to do the tests until the spring will not return to its original shape. To make the tests fair I will use the same spring and set of weights each time. Also I will add the weight proportionally in 1 Newton (10kg) each time. Therefore the change in weight will remain the same. My prediction is that Hooke's Law can be proved through a steel spring, as if the weight on

#### The effect of applied force on the extension of a spring, using Hooke's Law to predict my results.

Physics Coursework - Forces and Extension Plan Introduction I will be studying the effect of applied force on the extension of a spring, using Hooke's Law to predict my results. I will investigate how much a single spring, two springs in series, and two springs in parallel extend by when I apply measured forces to them. Diagram This is how I set up my apparatus to investigate the springs: Method This is how I conducted the experiment: I set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Using the pointer, I measured the extension of the spring from 0N to 3.5N, by adding 1/2 N weights. I then repeated the experiment, using two springs placed side-by-side (parallel), then repeated it again using two springs attached to each other (series). Safety The equipment used in this experiment is all safe, but nevertheless, the weights should not be dropped, and the springs must be handled with care. Prediction/Theory Hooke's Law states that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied. I expect this to be shown in my results and graphs. A force (F) on a spring is linearly dependent on its extension, ?x. Hooke's law states that to extend a spring by an amount ?x, one needs a force, which is determined by the equation F = k?x. The spring constant, k, is a quality particular to each spring, usually determined by its thickness and the malleability of the

#### To Determine the Spring Constant of a Helical Spring and a Value for the Earth's Gravitational Field Strength

A2 COURSEWORK AIM: To Determine the Spring Constant of a Helical Spring and a Value for the Earth's Gravitational Field Strength OUTLINE: I will be using a coiled spring and using its elastic properties to determine a value for its spring constant and it's oscillating properties to calculate a value for the earth's gravitational field strength, to compare to the actual value for the earth's gravitations field strength. *SPRING CONSTANT* Hooke's Law states - "The Force a Spring Exerts on a Body is Directly Proportional to the Displacement of the System (The Extension of the spring)" i.e. Force Extension So... Force = K x Extension F = Ke So K = F/e * For this experiment I will have to use the same spring throughout because the spring constant values vary from spring to spring. * I will set-up an experiment to show the relationship between force and extension so I can calculate K, the spring constant. * My results will be repeated and averages taken, to ensure 'fair' results. * I will also take my results whilst loading and unloading the various weights to ensure the spring has not extended past its elastic limit. APPARATUS: * Clamp and stand * Metre Rule * Spring * Weights (10 x 10g, 8 x 100g) * Scales (accurate to +0.01g) (0.00001kg) SET-UP: PLAN: * First the apparatus is to be collected and set up as shown on the previous page (without

#### Investigate stretching using Hooke's Law.

INTRODUCTION We have been asked to investigate stretching using Hooke's Law. Before actually planning the experiment, I will do some research to find out about Hooke's Law, and matters related to it, so that I can make predictions. And figure out away to make this investigation fair and safe. KNOWLEDGE Hooke's law states that: - "If you stretch something with a steadily increasing force, then the length will increase steadily too". However Hooke's law isn't all to do with stretching, it is to do with the Extension also. Extension is the increase in length compared to the original length with no force applied. For the majority of the materials, the extension will be proportional to the load. Forces can change the motion or shape of an object. An object that regains its original shape when the force is removed it is said to be elastic. For example, a rubber band that is stretched and then released usually returns to its original length. Rubber is an example of material that possesses elasticity. You can change the shape of a material by applying enough force. When you stop applying the force, some materials retain their new shapes; these are plastic materials. Other materials return to their old shape when you stop applying the force; these are elastic materials. When you pull an elastic material, it stretches - increases in length. At first, when you double the pull,

#### To investigate the stretching of an elastic band when it has some load on it.

Saira Hamid Physics course work 1cm Elastic Band Investigation: To investigate the stretching of an elastic band when it has some load on it. Aim: To find out how much load is needed for the elastic band to reach its elasticity limit. Introduction: By using an elastic band and some weights, I am going to find out how much weight in grams it takes the elastic band to reach its full elasticity limit before it snaps. Background: Hooke's law of elasticity states that for relatively small deformations of an object the displacement or size of the deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force or load. At relatively large values of applied force, the deformation of the elastic material is often larger than expected on the basis of Hooke's law, even though the material remains its elasticity and returns to its original shape and size when the load is taken off. Elasticity is the ability of a deformed material body to return to its original shape and size when the forces causing the elastic band to stretch are removed. Most solids exhibit elastic behaviour. This limit is called the elastic limit; this is when the elastic band has reached the maximum elasticity before it snaps. If an elastic band has too many weights on it and has exceeded the limit it will snap. The elastic limit depends on the type of solid used. E.g. a steel bar or wire can be

#### How power produced by a solar cell is affected by its distance from a light source.

How power produced by a solar cell is affected by its distance from a light source. Theory I expect that as the solar cells are moved closer the light source the higher the power they will produce. As light moves away from the source it spreads out at all angles the further you are from the source the less intense the light will be. P = I V Power = current x volts P = FA Power = flux x area Flux = P/A Area of 4 solar cells that I will use is 0.0077m2 This means that the higher the flux the higher the power as we are not changing the area of the solar cells as this remains is constant. So as flux increases so will the power and this will happen as the cells are moved closer to the light. Diagram Using what I know about space and the way light intensity changes the relation I expect is. Power = 1/distance2 Plan To measure power by a solar cell and distance light source is away form it, then to plot the distance against power to get a strong inverse relationship. Then to plot a graph of power against 1/distance this should then give a straight line and hopefully proportionality that is what I wish to prove. To prove that power produce by a solar cell is reciprocal of distance. I placed a light on a table pointed at an array of solar cells mounted on a stand fixed with a clamp. I will move the solar cell closer to the light source and take