GENERAL SCIENCE A REPORT CONCERNING STARS & CONSTELLATIONS Report: Michiel Klaassen Joëlle van der Pol Literature essay: Veralyn Adeyinka Wikke den Hartogh 4VM February 2004 Table of contents A few interesting constellations Orion (The hunter) " Orion is the master of the winter skies. He lords over the heavens from late fall to early spring, with his hunting dog Sirius trailing at his feet. " The mythic tales of Orion go as far back as the Hittites, who flourished from the Second Millennium BC to around 1200 BC. One story from this culture account of Orion's death. Here he is called Aqhat, and was a handsome and famous hunter. The Battle-Goddess Anat fell in love with Aqhat, but when he refused to lend her his bow, she sent another man to steal it. This man failed to do it, and wound up killing Aqhat and dropping the bow into the sea. This is said to explain the astronomical fact that Orion and the Bow (an older version of the constellation) drops below the horizon for two months every spring. Finding Orion should be no problem. Its stars are some of the most familiar in all the heavens. There are three bright stars which make up the belt of Orion. From west to east the stars are called Mintaka, Alnilam, and Alnitak. Even the Bible makes reference to this famous group. God, while pointing out how all-powerful he was, is purported to have asked Job if he
The Mystery of Matter and Antimatter Written by Mandy Barbour Year 11 Physics The current unbalanced state of the universe contradicts what our laws of physics have suggested. At the dawn of the universe an imbalance between the originally equal amounts of matter and antimatter occurred, and in 1967 Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov created three conditions that would allow this imbalance to happen. These conditions have been a topic of much debate between physicists and have not been proven to be totally factual to this day. Despite this, they have acted as important guidelines for others involved in this field, proving their relevance. Progress towards understanding the initial state of the universe is increasing and technology is evolving to aid our education. The root to all scientific cosmology is the Big Bang Theory. It is believed that the "big bang" left equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Matter and antimatter is a collective term given to two identical particles that are of opposite charge. Therefore they are the same with the exception of charge. There opposite charges adhere to the Laws of Attraction, which state that two particles of opposing charge are attracted to each other. On their collision they, theoretically, annihilate each other resulting in a gamma ray (pure radiation). This can be shown by; e+ + e- › ? (A positron plus and electron
Radio Waves With wavelengths varying between 0.5 cm to 30,000 m, radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum and can channel innumerable forms of data through air, usually over millions of miles. Radio waves are not just transmitted from radio stations and onto one's boom box; but are also emitted by stars. Technologies such as communication, wireless networking , AM and FM broadcasting, GPS, radars, satellite communication and microwaves rely on radio waves to function. Radio waves are a long-wave pattern of radiation that transfers energy through the interaction of electricity and magnetism. In 1864, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell developed the electromagnetic theory; a mathematical theory that established that magnetism and electricity were associated. In the 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell's theory by discovering long- wavelength radio waves and confirmed it in his book, "Investigations on the Propagation of Electrical Energy". In his experiment, an induction coil producing high voltage was connected to a metal pedestal where a spark produced electromagnetic waves that reached the resonator. Here, an electric current was produced and formed a spark in the spark gap that helped Hertz detect the radio waves. Consequently, Hertz's discovery of the radio waves sparked new inventions and technologies.
To investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load. Aim: To investigate and analyse the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load of weights. Theory: Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to the spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. However, most of these do not come into play, apart from weight, as we are using the same type of weights. Hooke's Law: * Hooke's law states that the extension of a spring (or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. * This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not been reached. * If the elastic limit has been reached the object will not return to its original shape and may eventually break. If the experiment is correctly done, the law should show to be true. Prediction: I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Equipment: * 25swg Copper * 26swg Nichrome * 32swg Constantin * 32swg Nichrome * Stand * Clamp * Ruler * Weights * Hook Method Step 1: Collect all equipment Step
See how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation.
Physics Coursework Planning Variables The aim of these experiments will be to see how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation. One whole oscillation means the mass returning to its original position, be it the equilibrium or not. I will look at the independent variables (variables which are not caused as a result of another variable). The dependent variable in this case is time * Mass - the size of mass on the end of the spring. Bigger mass may affect the time it takes * Length of spring - if the spring is longer, the mass would have further to travel and this will affect the time it takes to oscillate. * Tension of spring - the more tension in the spring may result in the mass oscillating faster as there would be more tension. This would prevent the mass pulling the spring too far and thus mean the oscillating time would be shorter. * Gravity - the force of gravity would affect the mass, as if the gravity was less the mass would take longer to pull the spring down. If the gravity were stronger, the mass would take longer to go back to the equilibrium. * Temperature - if the temperature changed, the spring would be more ductile and this could mean the spring would deform earlier than it would at room temperature. I have chosen to make mass the variable, as this is the easiest variable to use in
Investigation into the effect of mass on the extension of a spring Aim: My aim is to investigate the effect of mass on the extension of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. Introduction We shall conduct an experiment to determine how the extension of a spring varies with the stretching force. A spring is hung vertically from a fixed point and a force is applied in stages by hanging weights from the spring. The apparatus is set up as shown. For the purposes of this experiment we shall be using loads of 100g, and the extension of the spring shall be measured in cm. Equipment: I used the following equipment to do my experiment: * Retort stand * Weights * 30cm ruler * Scientific Calculator * Weight holder with spring. * Boss Clamp Hypothesis Using scientific knowledge from that of Hooke's law, I am able to conduct a hypothesis. Hooke's law reveals that the extension is proportional to that of the load, and so if load increases, so does the extension and so stretching the distance. He discovered that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the springs and so we can use this formula to predict the
Light Waves In this universe there are many thing that we cannot explain. Among these many things is light. Light, as far as we know, come in different wavelengths and the size of the wavelength determine what type of light it is. The middle wavelength lights are what gives us the seven basic colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Beside these visible lights there are the lights that cannot be seen by the human eye. These invisible lights can be grouped into two other groups the long waves and short waves. The first group of waves is the longer wavelength of light including infrared and radio waves. Radio waves, the longest wavelengths, alternate and can be volatile. Arthur C. Clarke said in the essay "The Light of Common Day" that since radio waves fluctuate so much no animal has ever been able to sense them. He goes on to say that if you had an eye big enough to see radio waves your eyes would be millions of times larger than a normal eye. The next longest wave is the infrared light waves. Infrared light is used nowadays to see in the night. Special goggles are designed to pick up infrared light making it possible to see at night. The next group of light waves are the shorter waves of ultraviolet and x-rays. Ultraviolet light, sometimes referred to as UV, is right next to violet and is just beyond sight. UV light is what causes sunburns and can
Quasars Possibly extremely dense neutron stars giving off radiation. Once thought to be the bright centre of other galaxies. Pulsars These are neutron stars that emit an enourmous amount of radiation. They spin hundreds of times a second and we pick up the radio waves on Earth. Neutron Stars Formed from very large stars collapsing. Between 10 and 100 km in diameter a they can have a mass many times that of the sun. A star 8 times that of the sun creates a neutron star 1.5 times that of the sun. The rest of the mass is blown into the space. Black Holes Black holes that are worth considering are only found at the centre of galaxies. The centre of every galaxy has a black hole. It keeps the galaxy together with its immense gravity and is 10 times denser than what would be expected if there were just stars at the centre of our galaxy. Nothing escapes, not even light. Photons are captured and added to the gravity. 0 point field No dimensions. Cells take light from it to tell other cells where to go in growing. Where does gravity come from? There is infinite energy from gravity so in theory it could be converted into infinite
The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the collective name for all types of radiation. Radiation is energy that travels around in waves. The electromagnetic spectrum goes from the waves with the lowest energy to those with the highest energy. Radio Waves Radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. They can be from as long as a football to as long as a football pitches. Radio waves carry signals from devices from one place to another invisibly through the air. Radio waves are used for many different jobs: ? In Medicine - radio waves are used to transmit the pattern of a heartbeat through a monitor at a patient's home to a nearby hospital. They are also used to radio the condition of a patient from an ambulance to a hospital. Radio waves are used in medicine when paramedics are dispatched to the scene where they are needed. The hospital can tell the paramedics the condition of the person so that the paramedics can prepare a medical treatment kit. ? In Industry - used mainly in the transportation business. Radio waves can also be used to provide communication on construction sites. ? In Science - radio waves from outside the earth are detected using in radio telescopes. Radio waves are picked up when they hit the antenna of the radio telescope. The wave then goes to the tuner, then to the amplifier, and finally to the
Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule Plan Introduction Hooke's Rule states that extension of a material is proportional to the tension force applied to it unless the elastic limit is reached, which is the point at which the material no longer obeys Hooke's Rule. There are only a few materials that obey this rule. In this investigation, we will find out whether rubber obeys Hooke's Rule. We will measure in detail the way in which the extension of a rubber band depends on the tension in the band. This will be done by applying various amounts of weights, as it is a continual variation. Hooke's Rule = F = ke * F = Force in Newtons * k = Spring constant * e = Extension in Centimetres Rubber is a natural polymer which is made up of long chains of molecules which are bent back and forth with weak forces acting between them. As the rubber band is stretched, molecules straighten out and allow the rubber band to become larger. Eventually, as the molecules become fully stretched, the long chains will become parallel to each other and can stretch up to ten times its original length. Extra force will make the rubber band break. If the rubber is not stretched to breaking, once the force is removed the molecules tend to curl back again into their original position because of the attraction and cross-links between adjacent molecules. The return is elastic. Hypothesis I