#### The experiment involves the determination, of the effective mass of a spring (ms) and the spring constant (k). It is known that the period (T),

Investigation of the Properties of a Spring 14/11/99. Introduction The experiment involves the determination, of the effective mass of a spring (ms) and the spring constant (k). It is known that the period (T), of small oscillations of a mass (m) at the end of a helical spring is given by the formula: T= 2??(m+ms) k In this experiment the same clamp was used for all readings to make sure there were no miss-readings taken due to differences in the way the clamp and stand reacted to the movement of the mass. Also the spring in all readings was the same as, after all the ms and k of two different springs is going to be different and lead to different readings. The things that were varied in the experiment were, the number of slotted masses on the end of the spring and the number of oscillations of the mass to be counted. The number of oscillations (T) will be measured using a stopcock. Which was varied to give a number between 20 and 30. To keep the number of oscillations, for every mass as similar to each other as possible. To help keep the experiment fair. So to find ms and k the following experiment was devised and carried out: A clamp and stand were used to hold a spring in position, onto which varying sizes of mass were placed. These masses were allowed to bob on the bottom of the spring and a specified number of oscillations were timed using a stop

• Word count: 2053
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation to find a value of g using the oscillations of a spiral spring.

AS / A2 Physics Coursework Name Nicola Morris Teacher Mrs. Farrow Date February 2002 Title / Aim Investigation to find a value of g using the oscillations of a spiral spring. Diagram A2b partial A4c complete + labelled List of apparatus Clamp Stand and G clamp Metre Ruler (0-100 cm) +/- 0.1 cm Slotted mass and mass hanger (0-1kg added in 0.1kg masses) Stopwatch =/- 0.01 seconds Spiral Spring Fiducial Mark Blu-tack Pointer Flag A2d some A4d comprehensive A6d full specification Variables involved (constant and changing) There are two types of variable within my experiment - dependant and independent. In the static experiment, the load is independent, kg, and the extension is dependant, m. In the dynamic experiment, there is the time period, seconds, which is dependant, and the load, kg, which is independent. F=ke, if k is kept constant. If k is kept constant, then my graph will show a straight line through the origin. This shows that F ? extension. In my dynamic experiment, T 2 = 4? 2 m/k . This shows that again, if k is kept constant, my graph will be a straight line, and T 2 ? mass. To ensure that k is kept constant, I always used the same spring and same masses. My range of variables was so that, my mass didn't exceed 0.7kg, as from my preliminary experiments, I knew that this wouldn't exceed the elastic

• Word count: 1460
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### For this investigation I have been asked to find out how different masses on a spring effect the extension when the springs are in parallel, series and on a single spring.

Planning Aim For this investigation I have been asked to find out how different masses on a spring effect the extension when the springs are in parallel, series and on a single spring. Key factors Independent variables: * Extension of spring Dependent variable * Mass on spring(s) Controlled variable * Springs The range of readings that I am going to take will be from 0kg to 0.50kg this is because it will give me a good set of data to work with. I will increase the mass by half a kilogram each time. To make sure I get good accurate fair results I will repeat the process at least 3 times. When I do repeat the process I will make sure that I leave all the equipment as it is and not replace bits or add or remove components. To make sure that I don't have to replace any components, I will before I start the test make sure that all my equipment is working correctly and properly calibrated to the range of readings that I will take in the test. Prediction I predict that the extension of a spring will be proportional to its load during its elastic region and that when the load of the spring is doubled so will the extension of the spring; this can then be used to find the spring constant. If two springs are placed in series, I believe that the extension of the springs will be double the extension of a single spring with the same load (therefore will have half the

• Word count: 1859
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load.

To investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load. Aim: To investigate and analyse the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load of weights. Theory: Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to the spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. However, most of these do not come into play, apart from weight, as we are using the same type of weights. Hooke's Law: * Hooke's law states that the extension of a spring (or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. * This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not been reached. * If the elastic limit has been reached the object will not return to its original shape and may eventually break. If the experiment is correctly done, the law should show to be true. Prediction: I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Equipment: * 25swg Copper * 26swg Nichrome * 32swg Constantin * 32swg Nichrome * Stand * Clamp * Ruler * Weights * Hook Method Step 1: Collect all equipment Step

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• Word count: 930
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### My perfect night

My perfect night A poem by Jamie Barratt My perfect night, of which there are few is a place by the sea with a picturesque view I'll watch the sun as it rises and falls A lone whale swims, making gentle calls Stars will appear, darkness descend I gaze with wonder through an enlarged lens A full moon emerges, a giant in the sky A sight less than stunning would be a lie Listening to the sea lapping on the shore feeling my senses yearning for more The scent of sea air surrounds me so On occasions I don't smell it, I feel so low A sea so serene, a sky so clear many stars shimmer brightly, they appear so near I use these nights as a time to reflect on a world of cruelty, anger and

• Word count: 140
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Testing Hooke's Law

Testing Hooke's Law By Daniel Bowman 11CU Introduction Hooke's law is when forces applied to a solid object and it can result in extension or compression. Hooke's law is able to predict how a stretchable object would behave when a force is applied to it. Planning I aim to show how much force strips of black bin liners (polythene) will take before it reaches its elastic limit and obey Hooke's law. I will also investigate if the length of the strips can alter the results, keeping the width the same. The main suitable equipment I will need to use may include the two different types of plastic cut at different lengths and 100g masses to test the extension. I will obviously need other basic apparatus to carry out the investigation. My experiment will last until each strip of plastic splits, so I cannot at this time state how many masses I will require. Polythene The plastic I have chosen to use has many uses. Polythene is used to manufacture bottles, carrier bags, buckets, machine parts and bowls. This suggests to me that thickness of the plastic can affect the strength, as a plastic carrier bag is not as strong as a plastic bucket. I also no that there are two types of polythene: High density, which is rigid and hard, and low density, which is tough and flexible. Machine parts are generally made from high-density polystyrene whilst bottles are made from the

• Word count: 2173
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### "Bridging the Miles Between East and West" - compare and contrast.

Comparison and Contrast Essay "Bridging the Miles Between East and West" Silver Spring, Maryland, and Phoenix, Arizona, are practically on opposites sides of the country. Because Silver Spring is on the east coast and Phoenix is in the southwest desert, one would expect the climates to be completely different, and they are! But, other than that, the two cities share some commonalities. The fact that Silver Spring is a suburb of Washington D.C.--capital of the United States--and Phoenix is the capital of Arizona guarantees enriching cultural opportunities in both. Additionally, both happen to be surrounded by states brimming with diverse natural beauty. Although the distance and climactic differences between Silver Spring and Phoenix are great, the cultural similarities between the two cities manage to bridge the miles between them. The climates of the two cities represent their greatest diversity. Maryland is a Mid-Atlantic state on the east coast where the weather is, as one would expect, cold in the winter and hot in the summer. It may snow in the winter, but not very often and not very deep. Summers are hot with humidity reaching 90% at times, creating a muggy atmosphere. It is in the spring and fall, however, that Maryland is at its best. In March, balmy weather starts rolling in, enticing tulips and crocuses out of their cold beds. Azaleas soon follow, punctuating

• Word count: 773
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Does an elastic band behave in the same way as a steel spring?

Does an elastic band behave in the same way as a steel spring? Apparatus Clamp stand, rubber elastic band, 0.5N weights, 1 metre stick, clamp and pointer. Method We set the apparatus as shown above. First of all we took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. Then we steadily increased the force by adding a 0.5N weight each time to the elastic band. We did this until we reached 3N, and then steadily decreased the force by carefully taking of a 0.5N weight each time, until we had no weights attached to the elastic band. Next we again took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. We recorded the results of the length in cm at the pointer, each time a weight was added or removed and at the beginning and end when no force was being applied to the elastic band. We repeated the experiment 3 times to make sure our results were valid. We made sure the experiment was fair by keeping the following variables the same; Elastic band Apparatus Units on metre rule to record results (cm) Person taking measurement Amount of load added each time Person adding and removing weights Temperature Position Lastly, we worked out an average length in cm by adding the 3 results and dividing by 3. We then took 1 average from an other to work out the

• Word count: 566
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Hooke's Law / Young's Modulus - trying to find out what factors effect the stretching of a spring.

Hooke's Law / Young's Modulus I am trying to find out what factors effect the stretching of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Extension = New length - Original length To see if my prediction is correct I will experiment, and obtain results using Hookes Law. He found that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the spring. Hookes Law F=ke F = Force in Newtons k = Spring constant e = Extension in Meters My method of experimentation will be to use a clamp stand and boss clamp to suspend a spring from. A second boss clamp will hold in place a metre rule starting from the bottom of the spring to measure extension in mm. I will then add weights to the spring and measure extension. Before deciding on the range of experimentation I carried out a preliminary test to find the elastic limit of the springs we had. To do this I added weights to the spring until it

• Word count: 1958
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the relationship between the extension and the force added, whether they are linked through proportionality.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between the extension and the force added, whether they are linked through proportionality. Hypothesis: I predict that there will be a relationship between the force and the extension. I believe that as the force added increases so will the extension. There should also be a pattern, which will help describe the relationship between the force and the extension. I am led to believe this from the scientific theory of Hooke's Law, which states that: "The extension is directly proportional to the stretching force" This means that if the force is doubled the extension will be doubled or if trebled it will be also trebled and it follows this same pattern. Fair Test: For this experiment I will be using elastic bands rather than springs. I will have to make sure that it is a fair test to have the most accurate results possible. Factors, which I have to take into consideration, are things like the length and thickness of the rubber bands. I must also make sure to use a new rubber band so it won't be worn out or damaged as not to get wrong results. To overcome this problem I'll use one average sized and thickness rubber band throughout the whole experiment. I must not put to much weight on the rubber band or it will reach its 'elastic point' and be permanently damaged. For this experiment to be a fair test I will keep everything the

• Word count: 1040
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science