• Ranking:
• Word count: 580
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load.

To investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load. Aim: To investigate and analyse the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load of weights. Theory: Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to the spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. However, most of these do not come into play, apart from weight, as we are using the same type of weights. Hooke's Law: * Hooke's law states that the extension of a spring (or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. * This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not been reached. * If the elastic limit has been reached the object will not return to its original shape and may eventually break. If the experiment is correctly done, the law should show to be true. Prediction: I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Equipment: * 25swg Copper * 26swg Nichrome * 32swg Constantin * 32swg Nichrome * Stand * Clamp * Ruler * Weights * Hook Method Step 1: Collect all equipment Step

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• Word count: 930
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### See how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation.

Physics Coursework Planning Variables The aim of these experiments will be to see how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation. One whole oscillation means the mass returning to its original position, be it the equilibrium or not. I will look at the independent variables (variables which are not caused as a result of another variable). The dependent variable in this case is time * Mass - the size of mass on the end of the spring. Bigger mass may affect the time it takes * Length of spring - if the spring is longer, the mass would have further to travel and this will affect the time it takes to oscillate. * Tension of spring - the more tension in the spring may result in the mass oscillating faster as there would be more tension. This would prevent the mass pulling the spring too far and thus mean the oscillating time would be shorter. * Gravity - the force of gravity would affect the mass, as if the gravity was less the mass would take longer to pull the spring down. If the gravity were stronger, the mass would take longer to go back to the equilibrium. * Temperature - if the temperature changed, the spring would be more ductile and this could mean the spring would deform earlier than it would at room temperature. I have chosen to make mass the variable, as this is the easiest variable to use in

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1520
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the effect of mass on the extension of a spring.

Investigation into the effect of mass on the extension of a spring Aim: My aim is to investigate the effect of mass on the extension of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. Introduction We shall conduct an experiment to determine how the extension of a spring varies with the stretching force. A spring is hung vertically from a fixed point and a force is applied in stages by hanging weights from the spring. The apparatus is set up as shown. For the purposes of this experiment we shall be using loads of 100g, and the extension of the spring shall be measured in cm. Equipment: I used the following equipment to do my experiment: * Retort stand * Weights * 30cm ruler * Scientific Calculator * Weight holder with spring. * Boss Clamp Hypothesis Using scientific knowledge from that of Hooke's law, I am able to conduct a hypothesis. Hooke's law reveals that the extension is proportional to that of the load, and so if load increases, so does the extension and so stretching the distance. He discovered that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the springs and so we can use this formula to predict the

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• Word count: 1225
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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• Word count: 2359
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule

Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule Plan Introduction Hooke's Rule states that extension of a material is proportional to the tension force applied to it unless the elastic limit is reached, which is the point at which the material no longer obeys Hooke's Rule. There are only a few materials that obey this rule. In this investigation, we will find out whether rubber obeys Hooke's Rule. We will measure in detail the way in which the extension of a rubber band depends on the tension in the band. This will be done by applying various amounts of weights, as it is a continual variation. Hooke's Rule = F = ke * F = Force in Newtons * k = Spring constant * e = Extension in Centimetres Rubber is a natural polymer which is made up of long chains of molecules which are bent back and forth with weak forces acting between them. As the rubber band is stretched, molecules straighten out and allow the rubber band to become larger. Eventually, as the molecules become fully stretched, the long chains will become parallel to each other and can stretch up to ten times its original length. Extra force will make the rubber band break. If the rubber is not stretched to breaking, once the force is removed the molecules tend to curl back again into their original position because of the attraction and cross-links between adjacent molecules. The return is elastic. Hypothesis I

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• Word count: 2411
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Properties of Waves.

Properties of Waves There are many different waves including water, sound, light and radio waves. All waves have the same range of properties, they can all be reflected, refracted, totally internally reflected, diffracted or interfere with each other. Waves are repeated oscillations (vibrations) which transfer energy from one place to another. Sound energy in the atmosphere is transferred by the oscillation of air molecules. Movement energy in water waves is transferred by the oscillation of water molecules. Amplitude is the measure of the energy carried by it. Frequency (f) is the number of complete wave cycles per second and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Wavelength (?) is the distance between two successive peaks or troughs and is measured in metres, m. Reflection Light waves travel in straight lines but reflecting them using mirrors can alter their direction. Reflection is the bouncing off of any type of wave from a surface. Reflection can be used to guide a laser past obstacles to a receiver. Shiny surfaces such as mirrors are smooth so reflect all light strongly as all the waves pass in one direction only. Rough surfaces look dull as they reflect light in many different directions causing it to scatter. This is called diffuse reflection. If light waves are reflected, the colour of the surface affects the colour of the reflected ray. Concave surfaces are used

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1031
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science