#### See how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation.

Physics Coursework Planning Variables The aim of these experiments will be to see how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation. One whole oscillation means the mass returning to its original position, be it the equilibrium or not. I will look at the independent variables (variables which are not caused as a result of another variable). The dependent variable in this case is time * Mass - the size of mass on the end of the spring. Bigger mass may affect the time it takes * Length of spring - if the spring is longer, the mass would have further to travel and this will affect the time it takes to oscillate. * Tension of spring - the more tension in the spring may result in the mass oscillating faster as there would be more tension. This would prevent the mass pulling the spring too far and thus mean the oscillating time would be shorter. * Gravity - the force of gravity would affect the mass, as if the gravity was less the mass would take longer to pull the spring down. If the gravity were stronger, the mass would take longer to go back to the equilibrium. * Temperature - if the temperature changed, the spring would be more ductile and this could mean the spring would deform earlier than it would at room temperature. I have chosen to make mass the variable, as this is the easiest variable to use in

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• Word count: 1520
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the behaviour ofan elastic material when a tensile force is applied.

Sian Jones 11BGC Aim: To investigate the behaviour of an elastic material when a tensile force is applied. What I know: In the 1660s Robert Hooke investigated how springs and wires stretched when loads were applied. He found out that for many materials, the extension and load were in proportion provided the elastic limit was not exceeded. Materials can be compressed as well as stretched. If a material is stretched but springs back to its original shape they are known as elastic. However they stop being elastic if bent or stretched too far. They either break or become permanently deformed. The springs represent the bonds caused by the forces of attraction and repulsion between the atoms, due to the electric charges of their nuclei and electrons. The attractive forces between the molecules in a solid provide its characteristic elastic or stretchy properties. When we stretch a solid, we are slightly increasing the spacing of it molecules. The tension we can feel in a stretched spring is due to all the forces of attraction between the molecule in the spring. Possible variables: I could change > The mass of load > Material of spring > Length of spring Variables I will study: I will study the mass of load. How I will make my test fair and why: To make sure my investigation is as fair as possible I will do a number of things. Firstly I will make sure that an equal

• Word count: 1443
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation on springs.

Investigation on springs Planning Background The silicon chip has been the cornerstone of the IT revolution for the past several decades. Over the years we have seen the size of the devices such as microprocessors shrink and their speed increase considerably. However, to enable miniaturisation to proceed as it has electronic device engineers have had to integrate discrete devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors into the chips themselves. To achieve this they have had to make these components essentially out of the silicon itself. To enable them to do so they have had to understand what factors affect, for example, the resistance of the material that they used. In a similar manner, see if you can discover what factors affect the resistance of a metal wire in the laboratory. Aim I will construct an experiment with the aim to first to discover what factors affect the resistance of a metal wire and secondly to find appropriate factors to measure the resistance in a simple way. Preliminary Work * Length of wire to use: metre of metal wire should be used because this is the same distance of an average arms length. Also we can get 10 readings of results from a 1metre length of metal wire if each reading is taking every 10cm. * Factors that affect resistance: Heat (temperature) Area Material Length * Which of these variables is the best variable to measure

• Word count: 1746
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To what extent are coastal landforms products to marine processes?

To what extent are coastal landforms products to marine processes? By Raya Racheva 5IB The coast is the boundary on the ocean where the land, sea and air meet and interact with each other, and influenced by the human activity shape the diverse, ever changing forms of the coastal terrain. The various processes that act on the coastline, like terrestrial, atmospheric, marine and human impact, make it impossible for the landforms to resemble. Even though each of the factors mentioned above are present at all time and they all have their part in the development of the coastal landforms, this essay will look at how big is the role of the marine processes in specific and are there other factors that can be considered as mostly acting on the coasts. On the coastal terrain, from the zone where the salt spray, sea water and sand blown by the wind towards the inland extend, to the place on the sea bed to which waves can move sediment, the landforms are defined into different types. Rocky shores, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches, coral reefs are all products of the constant actions of water, humans, and atmosphere. In addition one of the four processes listed above might have a bigger impact on a coastal landform than the others. Waves, currents, tides, salt sprays and some biotic features like corals are all known as marine processes. The waves supply a huge amount of energy that

• Word count: 979
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Simple Harmonic Motion of a mass-spring system.

Immanuel Lutheran College S.6 Physics (AL) 2003-2004 Experiment Report 1 Name: Lam Kong Lan Class: 6B Class No.: 7 Title: Simple Harmonic Motion of a mass-spring system Objective: . To investigate the motion of a spring-mass system undergoing oscillation and to verify the relationship between the period of oscillation of a mass hanging from a spring and the mass. 2. To find out the force constant and effective mass of the spring. Apparatus: > > Light spring > Stop-watch > Horizontal bar > Balance > > Retort stand and clamp > Slotted mass with hanger 2 ×100g and 5 × 20g Theory: By Hooke's Law, for a mass m hanging from a spring, at the equilibrium position, the extension e of the spring is given by mg = ke where k is the force constant of the spring. Let x be the displacement of spring from the equilibrium position, then we have an expression of the net force acting on the mass as Fnet = -k( e + x ) + mg = -kx . Here, the negative sign means that it is a restoring force and the direction of Fnet is always opposite to x. Moreover, according to Newton's second law, the equation of motion: Fnet = ma ? Fnet = ma = -kx, then a = - (k/m)x = -w2x ? = As the mass m executes simple harmonic motion (SHM), the period of oscillation is defined as ? T2 = 4?2() Therefore, a graph with T2 as the y-axis and m as the

• Word count: 1419
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the effect of mass on the extension of a spring.

Investigation into the effect of mass on the extension of a spring Aim: My aim is to investigate the effect of mass on the extension of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. Introduction We shall conduct an experiment to determine how the extension of a spring varies with the stretching force. A spring is hung vertically from a fixed point and a force is applied in stages by hanging weights from the spring. The apparatus is set up as shown. For the purposes of this experiment we shall be using loads of 100g, and the extension of the spring shall be measured in cm. Equipment: I used the following equipment to do my experiment: * Retort stand * Weights * 30cm ruler * Scientific Calculator * Weight holder with spring. * Boss Clamp Hypothesis Using scientific knowledge from that of Hooke's law, I am able to conduct a hypothesis. Hooke's law reveals that the extension is proportional to that of the load, and so if load increases, so does the extension and so stretching the distance. He discovered that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the springs and so we can use this formula to predict the

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• Word count: 1225
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Passage - P83 Fathers and Sons, Ivan Turgenev

The Passage (P83 Fathers and Sons, Ivan Turgenev) The country through which they were driving was not in the least picturesque. Field after field stretched away to the horizon, now sloping gently up, now dropping down again. Here and there was a copse, and winding ravines sparsely planted with low bushes, reminding one of the way in which the old maps showed them in the time of Catherine. There were little streams, too, with hollow banks and diminutive ponds with narrow dams, hamlets with squat little huts beneath blackened and often half collapsing roofs, and crooked threshing barns with wattled walls and gaping doorways opening on to abandoned threshing floors, and churches, some brick-built with the stucco peeling off in patches, others of wood with crosses awry and churchyards that had gone to wrack and ruin slowly Arkydy's heart sank. As though to complete the pattern the peasants whom they met on the way were all in rags and mounted on the sorriest little nags; willows with broken branches and bark hanging in strips stood like tattered beggars on the roadside; emaciated and shaggy crows, gaunt with hunger, were greedily tearing up the grass along the ditches. They looked as if they had just been snatched from the murderous talons of some terrifying monster; and the pitiful fight of the sickly cattle in the setting of that lovely spring day conjured up like a white

• Word count: 335
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Light Waves

Light Waves In this universe there are many thing that we cannot explain. Among these many things is light. Light, as far as we know, come in different wavelengths and the size of the wavelength determine what type of light it is. The middle wavelength lights are what gives us the seven basic colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Beside these visible lights there are the lights that cannot be seen by the human eye. These invisible lights can be grouped into two other groups the long waves and short waves. The first group of waves is the longer wavelength of light including infrared and radio waves. Radio waves, the longest wavelengths, alternate and can be volatile. Arthur C. Clarke said in the essay "The Light of Common Day" that since radio waves fluctuate so much no animal has ever been able to sense them. He goes on to say that if you had an eye big enough to see radio waves your eyes would be millions of times larger than a normal eye. The next longest wave is the infrared light waves. Infrared light is used nowadays to see in the night. Special goggles are designed to pick up infrared light making it possible to see at night. The next group of light waves are the shorter waves of ultraviolet and x-rays. Ultraviolet light, sometimes referred to as UV, is right next to violet and is just beyond sight. UV light is what causes sunburns and can

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• Word count: 473
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Universe - Definitions

Quasars Possibly extremely dense neutron stars giving off radiation. Once thought to be the bright centre of other galaxies. Pulsars These are neutron stars that emit an enourmous amount of radiation. They spin hundreds of times a second and we pick up the radio waves on Earth. Neutron Stars Formed from very large stars collapsing. Between 10 and 100 km in diameter a they can have a mass many times that of the sun. A star 8 times that of the sun creates a neutron star 1.5 times that of the sun. The rest of the mass is blown into the space. Black Holes Black holes that are worth considering are only found at the centre of galaxies. The centre of every galaxy has a black hole. It keeps the galaxy together with its immense gravity and is 10 times denser than what would be expected if there were just stars at the centre of our galaxy. Nothing escapes, not even light. Photons are captured and added to the gravity. 0 point field No dimensions. Cells take light from it to tell other cells where to go in growing. Where does gravity come from? There is infinite energy from gravity so in theory it could be converted into infinite

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• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The physics of white dwarf stars.

A collision where one party collides with another and leaves the scene is considered to be illegal in the United States. If a white dwarf would collide with the sun this would be the exact case. It would take around an hour for the white dwarf to go completely through the sun and then after causing great destruction and changing the chemical and physical properties of the sun it would just continue on its path and leave behind massive destruction. The first time a white dwarf and main sequence collisions were studied it was done by Michael Shara, Giora Shaviv and Oded Regev at Tel Aviv University and then Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa. These scientists use supercomputers to study the effects of various collisions. They concluded that if a sun like star was hit by a white dwarf 10 million times as dense, the sun like star would be destroyed and only minor warming would take place on the outside of the white dwarf. If the sun were to go through this type of collision it would not annihilate the earth but would cause all the water in both the atmosphere and in the oceans to boil away. No longer having the gravitational pull of the sun, the earth and other planets would wonder the galaxy. The Pauli exclusion principle is defined by Dr. Steven S. Zumdahl, "In a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers." Due to this principle,

• Word count: 948
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science