#### How does the weight hung on the end of a piece of rubber cord affect the extension of the cord?

Experiment: How does the weight hung on the end of a piece of rubber cord affect the extension of the cord? Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the weight hanging on the end of an elastic cord affects the extension of the cord being pulled downwards. Prediction I predict that the greater the weight applied to the cord, the further the cord will stretch.I predict this because, according to Hooke's Law, extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. I think that the extension will be greatest when more weight has been added onto the end. Method: We will look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. We will vary this by adding 10g of weight onto the end of the cord each time and measuring the length of the cord using a tape measure. We will then record these measurements after repeating each measurement twice and record the extension of the cord by taking the length of the cord originally away from the length of the cord after more weight has been added onto the end. Some background information: Hooke's law: Hooke found out that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the spring: Hooke's Law: F=ke F = Force in Newtons k = spring/cord constant e = Extension in Metres Hooke's Law, as commonly used, states that the force a spring (or cord

• Word count: 2391
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To find out how different masses affect the period of one oscillation of a spring.

PHYSICS COURSEWORK AIM: To find out how different masses affect the period of one oscillation of a spring. PLANNING: INTRODUCTION: A spring is elastic, therefore has elastic properties and this is why it oscillates. The spring can harness elastic energy in its coils as it is pulled down. When masses are hung from the spring, it gains gravitational potential energy that causes a resultant force and the spring as a result is pulled down. It also gains some kinetic energy along with the elastic energy. Then, the forces balance out and there is no movement. At this point energy is converted to elastic and the spring pulls back up again. As it goes up, the shape restores and gains gravitational potential energy again. At the top, the forces balance, then is converted back into gravitational potential energy, and again, a resultant force is created that pulls the spring down. In this experiment, what I am planning to do is to find out how different masses affect the period of one oscillation of a spring. This is done by setting up a stand and a clamp. Hanging off the clamp will be the spring. Then a weight carrier will be hung off the spring, and this is where the different masses will be placed. The spring has a restrain force but this shouldn't affect the experiment because it will be extended by the weight carrier. Diagram: The masses will make the spring oscillate and

• Word count: 963
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### An Investigation into Hooke's Law - The aim of this experiment is to find out if the amount of weight applied to an elastic or stretchable object is proportional to the amount the object's length increases by when the weight is applied.

An Investigation into Hooke's Law Planning The aim of this experiment is to find out if the amount of weight applied to an elastic or stretchable object is proportional to the amount the object's length increases by when the weight is applied. Since Hooke's law is famous, and is used a lot, I have many resources and researchable information available to use. I took this from a website; http://www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/hooke.cfm "Robert Hooke, who in 1676 stated, The power (Sic.) of any springy body is in the same proportion with the extension. He announced the birth of elasticity. Hooke's statement expressed mathematically is, where F is the applied force (and not the power, as Hooke mistakenly suggested), u is the deformation of the elastic body subjected to the force F, and k is the spring constant (i.e. the ratio of previous two parameters)." The equation will be very useful in calculating the change in size, and for preparing my hypothesis. I took this from http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0021767.html. Elasticity (physics) In physics, the ability of a solid to recover its shape once deforming forces (stresses modifying its dimensions or shape) are removed. An elastic material obeys Hooke's law, which states that its deformation is proportional to the applied stress up to a certain point, called the

• Word count: 1675
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What is the spring constant?

Energy stored in a spring Preliminary investigation What is the spring constant? Planning Aim - to gain an average compression rate of the spring in the trolley in order to find the spring constant. Apparatus Clamp stand 2 clamps 2 bosses, 24 0.98N weights 2 weight holders 3 labels Pencil Sprit level Trolley Ruler (measures to nearest 5 x 10-4m) Diagram Plan - I am going to investigate the spring constant of the spring in the trolley to enable me to calculate the energy stored in the spring in the major investigation. To calculate the spring constant, I need to plot my results onto a graph and draw a line of best fit. The spring constant is equal to the gradient of this straight line. To obtain my results, the above apparatus will be collected and set up as shown above. The spirit level will be used to check that the trolley is perpendicular to the ground. The trolley needs to be perpendicular to the ground for 2 reasons. 1). So that all of the weight of the weights act on the spring and not a component, 2). So that there is no friction between the plunger and it's housing. The variable that is being changed is the force applied to the spring; 0.98N will be added in each of the 12 increments. After each weight has been added to the spring, a pencil mark will be made on the label. When the 12th weight has been added and the pencil mark made, the weights will

• Word count: 2325
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### An investigation into the time period of a mass-spring oscillating system.

An investigation into the time period of a mass-spring oscillating system Contents * Pages 2-3 Plan * Page 4 Results * Pages 5-9 Analysis * Page 10 Evaluation & Bibliography Plan In this experiment we will investigate the time period of a mass-spring oscillating system. Oscillation is the regular movement of a mass back and forth; from one direction to another e.g. a simple pendulum swinging back and forth. In this experiment, we will investigate the time period of a mass-spring oscillating system, which oscillates up and down. This motion is called simple harmonic motion. For this experiment we will need to use the following apparatus in order to achieve the desired results: Method: set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. * Use the clamp to secure the spring so the top hook does not move about as this could affect the results. * Take a 100g mass hook, with 9 100g masses. * Start with just the mass hook, and pull down the mass on the spring. Do not pull it so far down so it would jump up high in the air, or so that when it compresses upwards, it does not become fully compressed, as this will also affect the results adversely. * Let go, and use a stopwatch to time 20 oscillations. You do not need to start timing at the moment you let go; instead you can start timing when the mass reaches either bottom or top of its oscillations, and then start timing. *

• Word count: 1584
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### My aim is to find out the total extension of a rubber band when weights are added.

Physics Coursework Stretching a rubber band Aim: My aim is to find out the total extension of a rubber band when weights are added. Fair Test: To keep the experiment a fair test I am going to keep the amount of weights I add each time the same I am going to keep the weights 100g. I will also keep the rubber band the same size for each experiment and always use a setsquare to ensure that my results are as accurate as possible. Safety: To ensure that my experiment is completely safe I will have to make sure that everything is secure and firmly on the table, you have also always got to stand while carrying out an experiment and keep all equipment that is not related to the experiment out of the way. Apparatus: Variables: The variables that will affect my experiment are the following: * Type of rubber * Temperature of the rubber band * Different weights * Length of rubber band * Width of rubber band * Condition of the rubber band * Kind of rubber band Method: * Set up the apparatus as above * Assure that the long ruler is exactly straight by lining it up with the setsquare. * Measure the length of the rubber with no weights attached to see what the length of the rubber band is before it is stretched. * Add a 100g weights until the rubber band is unable to stretch anymore, measure the extension or the rubber band every time one 100g weight is added by

• Word count: 924
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The aim of my coursework is to calculate the wavelength of red laser light using the diffraction grating formula and the Youngs double slit formula.

Wavelength of Red Light Aim The aim of my coursework is to calculate the wavelength of red laser light using the "diffraction grating" formula and the "Young's double slit" formula. Due to the unavailability of different diffraction gratings, I had to use different slits which then I could compare the results I got from the different slits to the result I got from the diffraction grating. To improve the accuracy of my result I got with the diffraction grating, I did the experiment with and in absence of two lenses. By doing the experiment with the two lenses I hope to get closer to the real wavelength of red light as the dot on the screen will be smaller, sharper and clearer to measure. Equipment * Red laser light * Two meter rulers * Wall or screen * Slit holder * 300mm lines Diffraction grating * Variety of slits * Diverging lens * Converging lens * Clamp stand * Lens holder * Cello tape, blue tack * Pencil Method . Attach the laser to the clamp and cello tape the power button down so it stays on so marking the red dot on the screen can be done. 2. Adjust the diverging and converging lens to obtain a focused and small dot and place the diverging lens in front of the converging lens. 3. Insert the 300mm diffraction grating into the slit holder. 4. Place the diffraction grating with the slit holder, 2 meters away from the screen which in my case was a

• Word count: 1437
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Seismic Waves and Earthquakes

What is a longitudinal wave? Longitudinal waves - the vibration goes forwards and backwards along the direction of travel. Think of sound. Sound is a series of collisions of particles. In air a drum skin vibrates (for example). As this skin goes up it pushes all the air particles up and they compress together. These will then push into the air particles above them and cause them to do the same. The sound travels through the air as a series of collisions. A good way to see this is to put some marbles between two long rulers. If you make one marble move along it will go as far as the next marble, hit it and stop. The one it hit will move along to the next one and hit that - and so on. Another way to see longitudinal waves would be to use a slinky (a giant spring). If you stretch it out a bit the take one end and push it forwards and back you will see the spring's coils bunch together. The "bunching" of the coils will pass along the spring. The individual coils only go forwards and back a little way. Sound waves are examples of longitudinal waves. What are Transverse waves? Transverse waves vibrate sideways. Think of waves over water. These are transverse waves. The wave travels across the surface of the water BUT the individual molecules of water on the surface go UP and DOWN, not sideways. Watch a piece of wood on the water. It bobs up and down. The vibrations are at 90

• Word count: 693
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the relationship between the extension of a compact steel spring and the force producing that extension and to determine the elastic limit and force constant of the spring

To investigate the relationship between the extension of a compact steel spring and the force producing that extension and to determine the elastic limit and force constant of the spring Apparatus Stand Spring 00g weights with hanger Clamps and Bosses A 1 meter ruler Set square Goggles Diagram Theory In 1676, Robert Hooke studied the strain on material. He found that the strain on the material is proportional to the stress producing it. This is shown as: Extension Stretching force Strain is the amount of change in size, which could be length, area or volume. The stress is the force divided by the surface area. When a spring is stretched, the force that is required to stretch it is proportional to the amount of extension. If a selection of springs were taken to stretch one spring twice a far as the other, twice the amount of force is needed. If three times the amount of force was used then it would produce three times the extension etc. If a graph is produced, it will look like this: It shows a straight line up to the black dot where the extension is plotted against the force. All springs follow this rule up to this point, which represents the elastic limit. After this point, when the mass is removed from the spring, the spring does not return to its original shape. After the elastic limit has been reached, the spring stops obeying Hooke's law. Point A is an

• Word count: 1549
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Origin of the universe as one entity.

Origin of the universe as one entity One of the mysteries that have confused astronomers and physicists for centuries is how the life started. As you read on you'll be astounded; baffled. As Edwin Hubble sat late night observing the stars with a giant telescope, he made a miraculous discovery: the light from them was shifted to the red end of the spectrum and that this shift was most pronounced as the further a star was from Earth. This discovery made an electrifying effect on the world and that's when scientists began testing this theory. The discovery meant if the light from the stars were tending towards red than this meant the universe was expanded. After yeas of research they'd finally found the answer to the question that has baffled scientists for millenniums: How did the universe first begin. Being a scientist, scientists don't like to accept faith but little did they know hat if they'd just looked in the Qu'ran it would have made their life just a bit easier. "Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" (21:30) The science of modern cosmology clearly shows that, at one point of time, the whole universe was nothing but a cloud of 'smoke'. This is one of the recognized main beliefs of standard modern

• Word count: 806
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science