Investigating the Vertical Oscillations of a Loaded Spring Aims: The aim of this investigation is to find the elastic constant of the spring under study. The elastic constant of material is always useful to know and in some cases vital. For instance the elastic constant of a bungee rope is vital. It will tell the operator of the ride by how much the bungee rope will extend, using Hookes law (F=kx), and so how far the rider will fall. Using this they can calibrate the ride so as the give the rider the best possible experience. Because of this the aim of this experiment is to find out through experimentation the elastic constant of a material and find out if it is the same as what is stated in the specifications of the material. The object under investigation is a metal spring. Method: To find the elastic constant of the spring I will attach a mass (a weight with its mass measured on the scales) to it, then stretch it to a set amount from its normal location (this being where the attachment hook rests when no other forces are applied). Doing this I will then let go and time the oscillations of the spring (one oscillation meaning leaving the starting position, passing the rest position, reaching the aphelion, then returning to the starting position, or simpler one cycle). To get an accurate measurement of period of the oscillations I will time how long it takes to reach 10
The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the collective name for all types of radiation. Radiation is energy that travels around in waves. The electromagnetic spectrum goes from the waves with the lowest energy to those with the highest energy. Radio Waves Radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. They can be from as long as a football to as long as a football pitches. Radio waves carry signals from devices from one place to another invisibly through the air. Radio waves are used for many different jobs: ? In Medicine - radio waves are used to transmit the pattern of a heartbeat through a monitor at a patient's home to a nearby hospital. They are also used to radio the condition of a patient from an ambulance to a hospital. Radio waves are used in medicine when paramedics are dispatched to the scene where they are needed. The hospital can tell the paramedics the condition of the person so that the paramedics can prepare a medical treatment kit. ? In Industry - used mainly in the transportation business. Radio waves can also be used to provide communication on construction sites. ? In Science - radio waves from outside the earth are detected using in radio telescopes. Radio waves are picked up when they hit the antenna of the radio telescope. The wave then goes to the tuner, then to the amplifier, and finally to the
My aim in this experiment is to investigate how the compression of a spring affects the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the trolley that it is attached to.
Trolley Investigation Aim My aim in this experiment is to investigate how the compression of a spring affects the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the trolley that it is attached to. Scientific Knowledge In any compressed spring there is potential elastic energy. This can be calculated using the formula: Elastic Energy = 1/2 k x 2 When the spring is released it transfers the elastic energy mainly into kinetic energy. The formula that is used to calculate this energy is: Kinetic energy = 1/2 m v 2 However to find the velocity of an object you must first calculate its speed. This is done using the formula: Speed = Distance Time In any case, the amount of elastic energy that an object has will affect the amount of energy transferred to kinetic energy. Inevitably if there is more elastic energy that means that there is a larger quantity that can be transferred, resulting in a bigger final amount of kinetic energy. Safety I will carry out my experiment in a safe, secure area so that no harm is caused to anyone or anything. Dangers that may be encountered during this investigation include the fast (or slow!) moving trolley, possibly causing damage to interfering obstacles or people. To ensure that this does not happen I will clear the area before carrying out the experiment. I will ensure that people participating in the experiment are standing and not
Solar cells Coursework Aim I am trying to find out the relationship between light intensity and current produced by a solar cell and to explain how this happens. Background Research Solar cells need a sustainable amount of electricity to function properly. Solar cells transfer light energy into electrical energy. Although they involve no moving parts, they are high-tech solid-state devices. They are constructed by layered special materials called semi conducts; these are linked by electrical wires and arranged on a panel of glass (module). The panel will give out more energy depending light intensity it is getting. Light energy contains photons witch hit the solar panel and bump electrically charged particles around in the cell they then cause the electrons to move around and complete the circuit. This process repeats itself to give out energy. Prediction I think that when the light is moved further away than the solar cell the current will reduce because a solar cell needs light to create its current therefore without light it would not work. For example if it is moved four times, closer the solar cell will be 4 times more powerful. However if the Solar cell is moved four times further away then the current would of decreased and then stopped. Scientific Reason for Prediction I think this because if the power source is moved closer the light intensity will
Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule Plan Introduction Hooke's Rule states that extension of a material is proportional to the tension force applied to it unless the elastic limit is reached, which is the point at which the material no longer obeys Hooke's Rule. There are only a few materials that obey this rule. In this investigation, we will find out whether rubber obeys Hooke's Rule. We will measure in detail the way in which the extension of a rubber band depends on the tension in the band. This will be done by applying various amounts of weights, as it is a continual variation. Hooke's Rule = F = ke * F = Force in Newtons * k = Spring constant * e = Extension in Centimetres Rubber is a natural polymer which is made up of long chains of molecules which are bent back and forth with weak forces acting between them. As the rubber band is stretched, molecules straighten out and allow the rubber band to become larger. Eventually, as the molecules become fully stretched, the long chains will become parallel to each other and can stretch up to ten times its original length. Extra force will make the rubber band break. If the rubber is not stretched to breaking, once the force is removed the molecules tend to curl back again into their original position because of the attraction and cross-links between adjacent molecules. The return is elastic. Hypothesis I
Properties of Waves There are many different waves including water, sound, light and radio waves. All waves have the same range of properties, they can all be reflected, refracted, totally internally reflected, diffracted or interfere with each other. Waves are repeated oscillations (vibrations) which transfer energy from one place to another. Sound energy in the atmosphere is transferred by the oscillation of air molecules. Movement energy in water waves is transferred by the oscillation of water molecules. Amplitude is the measure of the energy carried by it. Frequency (f) is the number of complete wave cycles per second and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Wavelength (?) is the distance between two successive peaks or troughs and is measured in metres, m. Reflection Light waves travel in straight lines but reflecting them using mirrors can alter their direction. Reflection is the bouncing off of any type of wave from a surface. Reflection can be used to guide a laser past obstacles to a receiver. Shiny surfaces such as mirrors are smooth so reflect all light strongly as all the waves pass in one direction only. Rough surfaces look dull as they reflect light in many different directions causing it to scatter. This is called diffuse reflection. If light waves are reflected, the colour of the surface affects the colour of the reflected ray. Concave surfaces are used
What affects the kinetic energy of a trolley? In this experiment I will be trying to see if the amount a spring is compressed affects the speed of a Trolley when released against the trolley. I'll be using a 'light gate' attached to a time to help me to find out how fast the trolley passes the light gate out, from this I will be able to figure out the speed and how much Kinetic energy the trolley has. Plan Aim: To see if the amount a spring is compressed by affects the speed of the trolley pushed by the spring. I will also be looking to see if I can find any patterns in the results I get and see if there is any way I can predict what. Variables: Independent Variable: In this experiment I will have only one independent variable, which I will change though out the experiment. The independent variable will be how much the spring is compressed, each time I compress the spring I will increase it by another centimetre until I have done it from 1 - 15 cm. From this I should be able to see if there is a regular increase in the speed the trolley travels at when I increase the amount that the spring is compressed by. Dependent Variables: I'll have several Dependent variables in this experiment to try and help keep it a fair test. The first one being that I'll keep all the other variables the same (e.g. Mass and Distance). I'll also make sure that I use all the same