#### What affects the voltage output of a solar panel?

What affects the voltage output of a solar panel? Planning Aim The aim of the investigation is to find out how the distance between a light point source and a photovoltaic cell affects the output potential difference. Hypothesis I predict that the further the distance, the smaller the output potential distance Inverse square law for light intensity (Taken from the website - http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/isql.html#c1) "Inverse square law for light intensity against distance: As the distance between an observer and a light source increases, the observable brightness decreases with d-2. Light spreads out over an increasing area of space to decrease apparent brightness. (Figure 1.1) Figure 1.1 (http://www.astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/32/images/fig5.gif) Because, Pin is proportional to area-1 and area is proportional to distance2, therefore Pin is proportional to distance-2 (figure 1.2). This supports my prediction that the output potential difference will be much smaller when the distance between the point source and the PV cell increases. Of course, my hypothesis assumes 100% efficiency and no influence from background light and other factors that may affect the experiment in anyway. .2 Prediction of outcome (Pin ? distance-2) Apparatus list The list of apparatus to be used is: Ray box Used as the point source to emit light

• Ranking:
• Word count: 3350
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule

Investigation on whether Rubber obeys Hooke's Rule Plan Introduction Hooke's Rule states that extension of a material is proportional to the tension force applied to it unless the elastic limit is reached, which is the point at which the material no longer obeys Hooke's Rule. There are only a few materials that obey this rule. In this investigation, we will find out whether rubber obeys Hooke's Rule. We will measure in detail the way in which the extension of a rubber band depends on the tension in the band. This will be done by applying various amounts of weights, as it is a continual variation. Hooke's Rule = F = ke * F = Force in Newtons * k = Spring constant * e = Extension in Centimetres Rubber is a natural polymer which is made up of long chains of molecules which are bent back and forth with weak forces acting between them. As the rubber band is stretched, molecules straighten out and allow the rubber band to become larger. Eventually, as the molecules become fully stretched, the long chains will become parallel to each other and can stretch up to ten times its original length. Extra force will make the rubber band break. If the rubber is not stretched to breaking, once the force is removed the molecules tend to curl back again into their original position because of the attraction and cross-links between adjacent molecules. The return is elastic. Hypothesis I

• Ranking:
• Word count: 2411
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

• Ranking:
• Word count: 2359
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Black Holes Research and Report

Contents Page number 3 What is a Black Hole? Black Hole anatomy 4 Types of Black Hole 5 Event horizon radius 6 Mass of a black hole 7 Hawking radiation 8 What happens when Black Holes Collide? Gravitational lensing 10 Einstein rings Evaluation 11 References Black Holes By doing this assignment I aim to gain a better understanding of the physics behind Black Holes What is a Black Hole? To understand a black hole, you must first have an understanding of gravity in space. Imagine yourself on a trampoline; you make an indentation in the trampoline fabric. If someone was to roll a ball past you on the trampoline, it would begin to spiral towards you, down into the indent you have made. This is very similar to the way gravity works in space and time. The 'fabric of spacetime' is an imaginary mesh running through space (see right) which can be deformed and warped by the gravity of stars and planets. This is the principle upon which black holes work. A black hole essentially is an incredibly compact body which has warped space-time enough to make any escape from the force of gravity impossible. They are thought to be at the centre of galaxies, including our own Milky Way. As the name implies, a blackhole cannot emit or reflect any light; making them practically invisible. If enough mass is concentrated into a small enough region, the curvature of

• Ranking:
• Word count: 2181
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Electro magnetic spectrum.

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1860
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### See how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation.

Physics Coursework Planning Variables The aim of these experiments will be to see how one factor affects the period of time a mass on the end of a spring takes to complete one whole oscillation. One whole oscillation means the mass returning to its original position, be it the equilibrium or not. I will look at the independent variables (variables which are not caused as a result of another variable). The dependent variable in this case is time * Mass - the size of mass on the end of the spring. Bigger mass may affect the time it takes * Length of spring - if the spring is longer, the mass would have further to travel and this will affect the time it takes to oscillate. * Tension of spring - the more tension in the spring may result in the mass oscillating faster as there would be more tension. This would prevent the mass pulling the spring too far and thus mean the oscillating time would be shorter. * Gravity - the force of gravity would affect the mass, as if the gravity was less the mass would take longer to pull the spring down. If the gravity were stronger, the mass would take longer to go back to the equilibrium. * Temperature - if the temperature changed, the spring would be more ductile and this could mean the spring would deform earlier than it would at room temperature. I have chosen to make mass the variable, as this is the easiest variable to use in

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1520
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The effects of the extension of a spring on the time it takes a weight to oscillate.

The effects of the extension of a spring on the time it takes a weight to oscillate. Introduction I am investigating the relationship between the extension of the spring and the effect it has on the time it takes for the wait on the spring to oscillate. Scientific Knowledge As the spring is extended the spring stores potential kinetic energy. So the larger X is, the more energy is stored. To work out the energy we must work out the amount of work done first: Work Done = Force x Distance When the mass is released the potential energy of the spring is converted into kinetic energy of the mass which is at a maximum when it passes through the mid-point of the oscillation which is the point where the spring is not extended at all. So the work done by the spring is equal to the mass times the acceleration of the mass times the distance. This gives the energy released by the spring: Work Done = mass x acceleration x distance At the centre point Kinetic energy is equal to Potential energy. To work out the kinetic energy: K.E = 1/2 mv2 This is the energy gained by the mass after releasing it on the extended spring. So therefore: /2 mv2 = maX /2 mass x velocity2 = mass x acceleration x extension (distance) The velocity value is the velocity at the mid point which is where the mass final comes to rest after oscillating. The formula can be simplified to: v2 = 2aX Velocity

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1518
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### A report concerning stars and constellations

GENERAL SCIENCE A REPORT CONCERNING STARS & CONSTELLATIONS Report: Michiel Klaassen Joëlle van der Pol Literature essay: Veralyn Adeyinka Wikke den Hartogh 4VM February 2004 Table of contents A few interesting constellations Orion (The hunter) " Orion is the master of the winter skies. He lords over the heavens from late fall to early spring, with his hunting dog Sirius trailing at his feet. " The mythic tales of Orion go as far back as the Hittites, who flourished from the Second Millennium BC to around 1200 BC. One story from this culture account of Orion's death. Here he is called Aqhat, and was a handsome and famous hunter. The Battle-Goddess Anat fell in love with Aqhat, but when he refused to lend her his bow, she sent another man to steal it. This man failed to do it, and wound up killing Aqhat and dropping the bow into the sea. This is said to explain the astronomical fact that Orion and the Bow (an older version of the constellation) drops below the horizon for two months every spring. Finding Orion should be no problem. Its stars are some of the most familiar in all the heavens. There are three bright stars which make up the belt of Orion. From west to east the stars are called Mintaka, Alnilam, and Alnitak. Even the Bible makes reference to this famous group. God, while pointing out how all-powerful he was, is purported to have asked Job if he

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1498
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Science of Soundwaves and Their Applications

The Science of Soundwaves and Their Applications The science of the sound wave is important in everyday life, from its use in car mufflers to the high tech office. In this paper I'm going to talk about the sound wave and describe its characteristics, show how this science was applied to muffler design, and computer design. Sound is a pressure wave that consists of tiny fluctuations in the air pressure. The amplitude in general, is the maximum change in value of a parameter during the oscillation of a wave. In amplitude, that parameter will usually be pressure. The amplitude of a sound is the loudness of the sound. In illustration, this is the distance between a peak or trough. See illustration on previous page. The frequency is defined as the number of vibrations, oscillations, or cycles in a repeating process occurring per unit time. In the context of sound, it is the number of compressions passing a fixed point of reference in one second. The resulting unit of frequency is called Hertz (Hz). Frequency is perceived as pitch. Intensity is the rate at which sound energy flows through a defined area. Since the flow of energy is power, the dimensions of sound intensity are power/area. Usually, sound intensity is measured in watts/meter2. Intensity is perceived as loudness. Interference is a synonym for superposition. Constructive interference is the amplitude of the

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1429
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

A2 Physics Coursework Almost all the information about the known universe comes from different types of waves. Most of what we could originally see was made up of visible light. Visible light is made up of Blue, Green and Red light. Each colour has a different wavelength and when combined for a white light. What we can see (visible light has a wavelength of between 400 to 700 nm) only represents a very small proportion of the light spectrum (known as the electromagnetic spectrum). There are many other forms of electromagnetic waves we can't see. Radio waves have wavelengths billions of time longer than those of visible light. They are used to transmit radio and television signals and can range from less than a centimeter to hundreds of meters. Inferred again has a longer wavelength than visible light however shorter the radio waves. Although invisible to the naked eye we can often feel them in the form of heat. Ultra violet is shorter than visual light ranging from having a wavelength of 400nm to 10 nm. The shorter a wavelength is the higher amount of energy it contains. This is why UV light from the sun can damage your skin. X-rays are also very high-energy waves and can be dangerous when exposed to them for long periods of time. Gamma waves are less than 10 trillionths of a meter and are even more penetrating then X-rays. The electromagnetic spectrum is not only measure

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1349
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science