Wave Coursework

Physics Coursework Plan Investigating how the velocity of water waves depends on the depth of water Background knowledge Speed (V/ms-¹) = distance (D/m) ÷ time (T/s) Using this equation I can calculate the speed at which the water wave travels at. The deeper the water, the faster the water wave travels Aim I am going to investigate how the velocity of water waves varies on the depth of the water and will find the relationship between these two variables. Prediction/Hypothesis I believe that when the depth of the water is increases the velocity of the water waves will increase in proportion. Average speed = distance ÷ time Apparatus * Tray * Support stand * Stop watch * Ruler * Water Diagram Variables and constants The only variables of this experiment are to be: * The depth of the water * The velocity of the waves The quantites which will remain constant are: * The temperature of the liquid * The type of liquid * The height at which the tray is lowered from * The number of waves recorded * The same tray is used To ensure a fair experiment, I will record my results 3 times. This will also increase the reliabilty of my results. I will then be able to work out an average, removing any error results out of limit. Before taking any readings of the wave velocity I will measure the length and width of the tray and also see if the tray is flat on the

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1223
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

Annihilation Theory

The Mystery of Matter and Antimatter Written by Mandy Barbour Year 11 Physics The current unbalanced state of the universe contradicts what our laws of physics have suggested. At the dawn of the universe an imbalance between the originally equal amounts of matter and antimatter occurred, and in 1967 Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov created three conditions that would allow this imbalance to happen. These conditions have been a topic of much debate between physicists and have not been proven to be totally factual to this day. Despite this, they have acted as important guidelines for others involved in this field, proving their relevance. Progress towards understanding the initial state of the universe is increasing and technology is evolving to aid our education. The root to all scientific cosmology is the Big Bang Theory. It is believed that the "big bang" left equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Matter and antimatter is a collective term given to two identical particles that are of opposite charge. Therefore they are the same with the exception of charge. There opposite charges adhere to the Laws of Attraction, which state that two particles of opposing charge are attracted to each other. On their collision they, theoretically, annihilate each other resulting in a gamma ray (pure radiation). This can be shown by; e+ + e- › ? (A positron plus and electron

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1111
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

Theories of the Universe

Theories of the Universe There are many theories on the topic of 'everything', but as physicists are simple folk they can only settle for one simple answer. Just one. Most theoretical physicists have believed that, ultimately, there must be just one possible universe, the physical manifestation of a set of laws so compelling that no other option would be viable. One universe. One theory. One defining way. It was a lovely idea, but increasingly it seems a fantasy. In recent years, theory and experiment are leading to the conclusion that, far from being the only option, our universe may be just one among an almost infinite array of possible worlds. It may be that ours is simply one member of a vast cosmological swarm. Several paths seem to be leading in this direction. The most notable is string theory, which is the leading contender for a so-called theory of everything. Many physicists are convinced that some version of string theory will prove to be the final description of all physical reality, unification under one mathematical umbrella of matter, force, space and time. As the name so charmingly implies, string theory proposes that, at its core, the universe is composed of minute strings. To get a sense of what this means, imagine a subatomic particle as a tiny point; now further imagine that, as you look closer, this point turns out to be a tiny closed loop, not a

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1041
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

Properties of Waves.

Properties of Waves There are many different waves including water, sound, light and radio waves. All waves have the same range of properties, they can all be reflected, refracted, totally internally reflected, diffracted or interfere with each other. Waves are repeated oscillations (vibrations) which transfer energy from one place to another. Sound energy in the atmosphere is transferred by the oscillation of air molecules. Movement energy in water waves is transferred by the oscillation of water molecules. Amplitude is the measure of the energy carried by it. Frequency (f) is the number of complete wave cycles per second and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Wavelength (?) is the distance between two successive peaks or troughs and is measured in metres, m. Reflection Light waves travel in straight lines but reflecting them using mirrors can alter their direction. Reflection is the bouncing off of any type of wave from a surface. Reflection can be used to guide a laser past obstacles to a receiver. Shiny surfaces such as mirrors are smooth so reflect all light strongly as all the waves pass in one direction only. Rough surfaces look dull as they reflect light in many different directions causing it to scatter. This is called diffuse reflection. If light waves are reflected, the colour of the surface affects the colour of the reflected ray. Concave surfaces are used

• Ranking:
• Word count: 1031
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

Investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load.

To investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load. Aim: To investigate and analyse the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load of weights. Theory: Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to the spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. However, most of these do not come into play, apart from weight, as we are using the same type of weights. Hooke's Law: * Hooke's law states that the extension of a spring (or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. * This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not been reached. * If the elastic limit has been reached the object will not return to its original shape and may eventually break. If the experiment is correctly done, the law should show to be true. Prediction: I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Equipment: * 25swg Copper * 26swg Nichrome * 32swg Constantin * 32swg Nichrome * Stand * Clamp * Ruler * Weights * Hook Method Step 1: Collect all equipment Step

• Ranking:
• Word count: 930
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

Wavelength of red light

Quality of Measurement Coursework Wavelength of red light The Aim The target is to take measurements to calculate the wavelength of red laser light by using the diffraction grating formula. Therefore I will use a variety of diffraction gratings. To improve accuracy I will always do the experiment with and in absence of two lenses. With this step I hope to get closer to the real wavelength. The Set-up Equipment list: . red laser 2. two metre rulers 3. wall or projector screen 4. double slit 5. slit holder 6. variety of diffraction gratings 7. diverging lens 8. converging lens 9. two lens holders 0. graph paper 1. cello tape, blue tack 2. marker pens The light from the laser passes through the diverging lens and splits up. Afterwards the converging lens concentrates the light. This process gives a more focused and smaller dot on the wall which leads to higher accuracy. The grating causes the concentrated light to break up again. Maxima occur on the screen where the light is in phase. The dot in the centre is called central maximum or 0th order spectrum. The next dots left and right from the central maximum are called 1st order spectrum; the next ones are called 2nd order spectrum and so on. The measurements . Set up the equipment 2. Cut the graph paper into 4 stripes and glue them together to get one long stripe 3. Stick the long stripe with blue tack on

• Ranking:
• Word count: 806
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science