To investigate the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load. Aim: To investigate and analyse the factors which will effect the stretching of a Helical Spring when put under a load of weights. Theory: Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to the spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. However, most of these do not come into play, apart from weight, as we are using the same type of weights. Hooke's Law: * Hooke's law states that the extension of a spring (or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. * This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not been reached. * If the elastic limit has been reached the object will not return to its original shape and may eventually break. If the experiment is correctly done, the law should show to be true. Prediction: I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Equipment: * 25swg Copper * 26swg Nichrome * 32swg Constantin * 32swg Nichrome * Stand * Clamp * Ruler * Weights * Hook Method Step 1: Collect all equipment Step
Physics Coursework Stretching a rubber band Aim: My aim is to find out the total extension of a rubber band when weights are added. Fair Test: To keep the experiment a fair test I am going to keep the amount of weights I add each time the same I am going to keep the weights 100g. I will also keep the rubber band the same size for each experiment and always use a setsquare to ensure that my results are as accurate as possible. Safety: To ensure that my experiment is completely safe I will have to make sure that everything is secure and firmly on the table, you have also always got to stand while carrying out an experiment and keep all equipment that is not related to the experiment out of the way. Apparatus: Variables: The variables that will affect my experiment are the following: * Type of rubber * Temperature of the rubber band * Different weights * Length of rubber band * Width of rubber band * Condition of the rubber band * Kind of rubber band Method: * Set up the apparatus as above * Assure that the long ruler is exactly straight by lining it up with the setsquare. * Measure the length of the rubber with no weights attached to see what the length of the rubber band is before it is stretched. * Add a 100g weights until the rubber band is unable to stretch anymore, measure the extension or the rubber band every time one 100g weight is added by
Maggie Ming L6Sc (21) Observation: A mass is hanged from one end of a vertical spring. When it is displaced downwards slightly and released, it oscillates vertically. The time (period) for one complete oscillation is always the same. Problem: What determines the period of a mass-spring system? Hypothesis: The period of the oscillation is affected by several factors. The material used to make the spring could affect the period. With an increase in the number of springs used and the weight of mass, there would also be a change in the period of oscillation. Aim: To find out how the above stated factors would affect the period of the oscillation of the mass. Principle: A spring pendulum consists of a mass suspended by a spring from a fixed point. If the bob is drawn aside slightly and released, it oscillates upward and downward in a vertical plane. For this motion of the mass, the period is given by T=time measured/the number of oscillation Equipment and materials: * 10x20g slotted weights * 4 copper springs * 4 iron springs * A retort stand and clamp * A stopwatch * A half-metre ruler Procedure: . Hang the mass on the copper spring and hang the spring on the clamp. 2. Start the oscillation and, at the same time, start the stopwatch to measure 30 oscillations. 3. With the same amount of mass, increase the number of springs used in hanging the mass in
Physics Coursework Extension of a metal spring investigation Aim: In this experiment I will try to investigate the factories, which affects the extension of a metal spring. Background information I think in this experiment as you increase the force on a metal spring then the metal spring stretches, and as you increase force more and more the metal spring will increase more. And we call this TENSILE STRENGTH. A piece of a metal spring can be compressed by equal and opposite force applied to its ends. When the force are removed, the metal spring will returns to its original shape. I think the following factors affect the extension of a metal spring: * The Length. * The thickness. * The applied force. * The material of the spring. . The length will affects the extension of a metal spring this is because the longer the spring will be the greater the extension will be. 2. The thickness I think this will affect the extension on a spring because the thicker the spring the less extension will be. 3. The greater the force will be the greater the extension will be. 4. the material of the spring will affect the extension because different materials got different strength Prediction: I predict that the extension will be proportional to the stretching force so long as the string is not
Investigating the stretching of a material AIM: I am trying to find out what factors effect the stretching of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring and elastic band. · Spring material. · Length of spring and elastic band. · Number of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring band material. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. PREDICTION: I predict the greater the force applied to the spring or elastic band, the further it will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. I will also work out the extension which is done by taking away the extended length from the original length. In order to see if my prediction was correct, I will use Hooke's Law. (-Robert Hooke (1635-1703), English scientist, best known for his study of elasticity. Hooke also made original contributions to many other fields of science.) He said that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the band, and there will be a elastic limit where the band and the spring can't take no more and will constantly drop and with the band it will actually break. PILOT TEST: Before the actual investigation we did a pilot test to see our estimate results.
The 'perfect storm' that formed off New York and the hurricane-like storm during the Sydney to Hobart yacht race in 1998 had many similarities and differences in the way that they formed and how the people involved with them reacted.
Part B The 'perfect storm' that formed off New York and the hurricane-like storm during the Sydney to Hobart yacht race in 1998 had many similarities and differences in the way that they formed and how the people involved with them reacted. The two extreme storms were similar in a couple of different ways. Firstly, both 'the perfect storm' and the Australian storm caused chaos, claiming the lives of six crew each. Due to freak events both storms were considered rare and they formed from many strong separate weather conditions. In the case of the 'perfect storm', hurricane Grace, a strong high pressure system with a leading cold front, another separate low pressure system to the north, the Gulf stream and an upper level disturbance all combined to form a storm that only occurs once every hundred years. The storm that formed in the Bass Strait formed due to a low pressure system moving into another small scale low pressure system and the East Australian current. Also the shallow water in the bass straight caused steep and savage waves. The intensity of both storms were similar also, in the case of the Australian storm reports from satellite images and competitors revealing average winds of 120 kph, with the strongest being 171 kph. The average wave height was recorded as 12 metres, but the biggest was 20m, however rogue waves were considerably bigger being recorded to be over
Sc1 Investigation: How Easily A Material Stretches under Pressure Apparatus: Diagram: ( The diagram shows an example of a rubber band being stretched some weights. The way you set up this apparatus is you attach the rubber band and the ruler to the stand and put the weights on the end of the material and then you just read the measurements. Help: In this investigation I had 2 partners Fielde Fargason and Richard Hart. Result Tables: In this investigation ive done a lot of things to make the investigation is fair, safe and accurate. To make this investigation I wore goggles when stretching the rubber bands just in case they flew in my eye. The way I made this experiment fair is I used the same amount of force on each rubber band/ plastic bag/ spring. The accuracy in this investigation is due to testing the results twice because we did this we need to add a average column and a average column means a extension column. Key: Force(N)= how much newton's are applied to the rubber band. 1 +2 = These are the number of times I tested the rubber band/plastic bag/ spring. Average = The numbers in columns named 1 +2 are added together then divide the answer by 2. Extension = The numbers in the average column take away from the top number in the Average column. The Tables are on the next page!
Investigation: What effects displacement of a ray of light? Variables * The angle the light hits the block at * The width of the block * The colour of the light * Light intensity Predictions * The larger the angle the larger the displacement. (See Diagram) In the diagram I have used snell's law to find the refracted angle, Snell's law is that for glass Sin i Sin r = 1.5 By using this I have been able to work out accurate results without doing an experiment. * The displacement will be directly proportional to the width of the block. I.e. The wider the block the larger the displacement E.g. if you double the thickness of the block then the displacement will double (See Diagram) Plan 1 The apparatus that I need for the experiment is Protractor 2 Ray Box 3 Ruler 4 Blank page 5 Glass block 6 Power Pack The measurements to be taken are: the size of the blocks : The size of the displacement 5 readings will be taken; this is because a large range of results is required to draw an accurate graph. A ruler will be used to measure the displacement and thickness and a protractor will be used to measure the angle. The experiment will be repeated twice to give a range of measurements The test will be kept fair by making sure that the controlled variables are kept the same throughout all the experiments. The main controlled variables are: Colour of light-
How does the extension of two or more springs in series or parallel compare with the extension of one spring?
How does the extension of two or more springs in series or parallel compare with the extension of one spring? My aim is to find out the extension of a single spring compared with springs in series. I think that the springs in series will extend more than one spring. I think that the springs in series will extend twice as much as one spring. If the extension is x, therefore the load of one Newton on two springs would be 2x as the load of one Newton is on each spring and not shared. One spring is x, two springs in series give 2x as each spring feels the one Newton mass. The parallel share the mass with each feeling 0.5. Parallel is x/2 compared to one spring, x and nx in the series. I will keep this a fair test by keeping the length of each spring the same. I will measure in the same units and keep the same conditions for each experiment. Hooke's Law supports my prediction: "The extension is directly proportional to the load" Equipment List: -springs -weights hanger -Newton weights -stand -clamp -boss -meter ruler Please look at the equipment list and set up as shown in the diagram. I would measure the extension of each spring in series and individually. I would record my results in a table. I will measure each extension three times. I will change the weights and the place of the ruler to stop myself assuming results and to keep them correct and accurate. I
Waves coursework What is the investigation about? The Investigation was about how waves travel. Water waves travel more slowly in shallow water in deeper water. This is can be shown by placing a flat Perspex or glass plate in a bottom of a ripple tank. As the water waves pass into the shallow boundary, the direction of the waves What could I change? We could change the volume of the water, we could change the temperature of the water, we could change the size of the tray, we could have a set time, we could have What will I change? Question If we pushed the tray harder, will it produce more waves? Prediction What equipment will I use? We used a tray so we can do the experience,, A stopwatch so we can time how long we can see the waves , A ruler so we can measure how big the force we pushed the tray. What are all the things we will measure? We will count how many waves will travel along the tray and also time it, when the waves slow down and finally stop we will stop the clock How will you make it a fair test We made it a fair test by measuring the force of push accurately by using a ruler. Keeping the 2000 ml volume of water How will I be safe? We were safe by moving all chairs and stools away from our area. We never messed about and we concentrated on the experiment What range of results will you take and why Will we take "how many waves",