Investigating Hook's Law.

Investigating Hook's Law Hook law is when obeying force length on a spring or any extendable materials. Example is when an extendable material is stretched by using different weight of masses, and it was able to go back to its normal shape, this is when hooks law as being applied. In contrast if the spring happened not to go back to it's normal shape, hook law has been disobeyed. This could due to the fact that; too many load are placed on the spring. This can damage the spring. Scientifically this is called elastic limit. During this process, force is applied to spring to pull the atom apart in order to make it stretch. The searching could be small because the atoms of solid are tightly packed together. The Kind of force used to observe the extension of spring after masses has been applied is known as potential force. When the potential force has been applied, one end and suspend sequence of masses are fixed to measure the spring extension. Aim: To observe if an extendable spring obeys hook's law. Prediction: When applying masses expands a spring it will go back to its normal shape in order to obey the hook's law. Apparatus *Clamp *Clamp Stand *Ruler *Hangar *Slotted Mass *Spring *Celotape. Safety: * Stand up while doing the experiment to avoid injuries when masses mistakely dropped. * Handle the mass with care * Use a reasonable surface area to place clam

  • Word count: 746
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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"Naked Ed".

Enc 1101 Angela Fralick Essay 3 "Naked Ed" The sun was shining brightly off the crystal water as my best friend and I paddled our small canoe down the Santa Fe River. The sites were familiar to me (I am somewhat considered a "river rat") Birds were flying overhead, turtles resting on fallen logs, the occasional lazy gator laying on the bank in the shade of an old cypress tree, and very frequently mullet jumping so high I thought they would land right in our canoe. Of all the exquisite wildlife I witnessed that gorgeous sunny day, one site that I seen I will always remember as truly beautiful: the life of Naked Ed at Lily Springs. As my friend and I turned a bend in the river, we saw a sign which simply read "Lily Springs: Enter at Own Risk." We contemplated ignoring the small canal that would take us to the exceptional and stunning spring, but being the explorers we are, we decided to give the spring a go. As we approached the spring, the first object I noticed was the straw hut on stilts. Next, I noticed a man sitting on a small dock built off of the hut. As we paddled ashore, I instantly felt comfortable because of the shouts of welcome I heard from Naked Ed. I learned many facts that day about Lily Springs and whom I officially came to know as Naked Ed. Lily Springs is located approximately 3/4 mile downstream from Poe Springs and 1/2 mile upstream of Rum Island

  • Word count: 729
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Investigation in the extension of an elastic band

Investigation in the extension of an elastic band Aim & Hypothesis I anticipate that an increase in the load on the elastic band will result in an increase in the extension of it. I think that the extension will be proportional to the load on the elastic band. I think that there will be a certain amount or energy lost and that this will increase proportionally as the load increase. This will be lost due to heat energy. Safety RISK ASSESSMENT - LEVEL ONE This experiment does not carry many hazards. Bags and coats will be moved out of the way to ensure that no one will trip over them. Whilst loading the elastic band care will be taken to make sure that the elastic band is loading carefully to try and ensure it does not snap. However I will be wearing satfey glasses to prevent injuries to my eyes if the band does snap. I will use some kg masses to stop the retort stand sliding of the desk. Variables Independent Variable: Load (kg) the masses which I am applying to the elastic band. Dependent Variable: Extension (m) to the elastic band I have used the same equipment throughout the experiment (including the same elastic band) to ensure that the experiment is as fair as possible. Diagram Method The apparatus was set up as shown on the previous page. I measured the 'extension' of the elastic band when it was not loaded. Then I loaded the elastic band with the masses,

  • Word count: 708
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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How may the study of earthquake waves be used to interpret the earth's internal structure and composition

How may the study of earthquake waves be used to interpret the earth's internal structure and composition? Studying the different waves that are given off in an eathquake can identify the internal composition and structure of the earth. There are three types of wave Primary or 'push' waves (P-waves), Secondary or 'shock' waves (S-waves) and Longitudal or 'long' waves (L-waves). The waves that must be studied to interpret the earth's internal structure and composition are 'Body Waves' Body waves are another name for P or S waves. Earthquakes occur most commonly in seismic zones; these zones are related with oceanic ridges, young fold mountains and island arcs. Earthquake foci are located at depths under the surface up to a maximum of approximately 700km. They are grouped into shallow (0-70km), Intermediate (70-300km) and Deep (300-700km). The zone in which earthquake foci are found is called the Benioff zone. The focus of any earthquake cannot be found any deeper than about 700km, this suggests that the composition of the earth below this depth is different from above it and so is not adequate for earthquake foci to be located and therefore it must change from a rock that can be easily fractured to a less easily fracturable rock. When an earthquake occurs, it produces waves that radiate out from the epicentre (The point on the surface directly above the focus). The body

  • Word count: 706
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Seismic Waves and Earthquakes

What is a longitudinal wave? Longitudinal waves - the vibration goes forwards and backwards along the direction of travel. Think of sound. Sound is a series of collisions of particles. In air a drum skin vibrates (for example). As this skin goes up it pushes all the air particles up and they compress together. These will then push into the air particles above them and cause them to do the same. The sound travels through the air as a series of collisions. A good way to see this is to put some marbles between two long rulers. If you make one marble move along it will go as far as the next marble, hit it and stop. The one it hit will move along to the next one and hit that - and so on. Another way to see longitudinal waves would be to use a slinky (a giant spring). If you stretch it out a bit the take one end and push it forwards and back you will see the spring's coils bunch together. The "bunching" of the coils will pass along the spring. The individual coils only go forwards and back a little way. Sound waves are examples of longitudinal waves. What are Transverse waves? Transverse waves vibrate sideways. Think of waves over water. These are transverse waves. The wave travels across the surface of the water BUT the individual molecules of water on the surface go UP and DOWN, not sideways. Watch a piece of wood on the water. It bobs up and down. The vibrations are at 90

  • Word count: 693
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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To Determine the Spring Constant of a Helical Spring and a Value for the Earth's Gravitational Field Strength

A2 COURSEWORK AIM: To Determine the Spring Constant of a Helical Spring and a Value for the Earth's Gravitational Field Strength OUTLINE: I will be using a coiled spring and using its elastic properties to determine a value for its spring constant and it's oscillating properties to calculate a value for the earth's gravitational field strength, to compare to the actual value for the earth's gravitations field strength. *SPRING CONSTANT* Hooke's Law states - "The Force a Spring Exerts on a Body is Directly Proportional to the Displacement of the System (The Extension of the spring)" i.e. Force Extension So... Force = K x Extension F = Ke So K = F/e * For this experiment I will have to use the same spring throughout because the spring constant values vary from spring to spring. * I will set-up an experiment to show the relationship between force and extension so I can calculate K, the spring constant. * My results will be repeated and averages taken, to ensure 'fair' results. * I will also take my results whilst loading and unloading the various weights to ensure the spring has not extended past its elastic limit. APPARATUS: * Clamp and stand * Metre Rule * Spring * Weights (10 x 10g, 8 x 100g) * Scales (accurate to +0.01g) (0.00001kg) SET-UP: PLAN: * First the apparatus is to be collected and set up as shown on the previous page (without

  • Word count: 689
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Forces, waves and radiation.

Forces, Waves and Radiation Springs Aim To investigate which factors affect the length to which a coiled spring stretches when a force is placed upon it, and whether the size of the coils makes any difference to the results. Prediction I predict that the heavier the weight placed one spring is, the more it will stretch as the greater the mass, the greater the force of gravity is, pulling the spring. I also think that the bigger the coils are, the less amount of weight the spring needs to stretch to its elastic limit. Apparatus * Wire (plastic coated) * Retort stand * 30cm ruler * Pen (to coil wire) * Slotted mass hanger Method To perform this experiment, I am going to take a length of plastic coated wire and wrap it around a pen, which will make the wire into a circular spring. I shall then be suspending the spring from a clamp and stand. I shall then place my weights on the lower end of the spring. I shall start the experiment by measuring how long the spring is at the starting point which enables me to take the other results accurately. After that task has been completed I shall be suspending a 50g weight from the spring. This will hopefully stretch the spring slightly. I will then measure the length of the spring and take away the starting point measurement, which will then give me an accurate reading of how far the spring has stretched. I shall then perform

  • Word count: 687
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Develop & Update Tourism Industry Knowledge.

THTTCOB01 Develop & Update Tourism Industry Knowledge Hotel Report By Samantha Ng Student No: X0499334000 Group: T1A Date: 23Feb2004 Table of Contents 2 Star Hotel Page 1 3 Star Hotel Page 2 4 Star Hotel Page 3 5 Star Hotel Page 4 Conclusion Page 5 Appendix 2 Star Hotels (Budget Hotel) Kingsgate Hotel Melbourne is a old and new combination hotel located in the CBD with all the standard room facilities e.g. television, bathroom, air conditioning, and mini fridge, etc. it included 24 hr reception , full luggage storage, tourist information and fax, email and photocopy service in the hotel. 3 Stars Hotels (Middle Class Hotel) The Hotel lbis Melbourne is a 3 stars hotel located close to Queen Victoria Markets, it offers clean and comfortable rooms with individual air conditioning, television, modem line, in-house movies, and refrigerator and tea/coffee facilities. Hotel facilities include a cocktail bar, a cater restaurant, guest laundry, dry cleaning and 24 hours reception. 4 stars hotels (First Class Hotel) Rydges Melbourne is a 4 stars hotel located in the CBD it offers a charming, modern and warm rooms with individual reverse-cycle air conditioning, television, modem line, in-house movies,

  • Word count: 685
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Electromagnetic spectrum facts.

Electromagnetic spectrum facts * Waves carry vibrations through a medium. * They transfer the energy locked up in the vibrations. * Waves have a measurable speed, wavelength and frequency. * Waves meeting a boundary between mediums may be reflected, refracted or absorbed - often a mixture of all three. * Waves passing through a gap may be diffracted (spread) - the spreading is only noticeable if the gap is similar to the wavelength. * Electromagnetic waves carry transverse vibrations in electrical and magnetic fields, not vibrating particles. * E-m waves don't need matter to travel through - they can travel through empty space (a vacuum). * In a vacuum, all e-m waves travel at (approximately) 300 million metres per second (3 x 108m/s) - the fastest speed in the universe. * When e-m waves travel through matter (for example, light through air or glass), they travel a bit slower than this but rarely less than half as fast as in vacuum. * Waves of different frequencies travel at different speeds in transparent matter - so a mixture of waves can be separated out by diffraction. For example, white light is split up into a mixture of colours when it goes through a prism. The electromagnetic spectrum table This table is nearly all you need to know about the e-m spectrum on one page. The electromagnetic spectrum Print or copy it out if you want a permanent

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  • Word count: 683
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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Investigating the Elasticity of a Rubber Band

Investigating the Elasticity of a Rubber Band Introduction: An elastic material is a material, which will return to its original length when a load is added and taken off, but if you reach the elastic's elastic limit then the elastic becomes plastic, this is called Hook's Law. I am going to investigate the elasticity of 1 rubber band by hanging it off a clamp which, is attached to a clamp stand and adding a load onto the rubber band. ' Apparatus: A long clamp stand, A clamp, A boss, A meter ruler, A pin, A mirror, A long thin rubber band, 100g Masses.' (1 Newton weights) The variables in this experiment are the thickness and length of the rubber band and the load, which is added to the rubber band, also there is temperature as it may effect the rubber and the metal Newton weights. 'I predict that the extension will double if the force doubles and the extension will treble if the force trebles. I also predict that the rubber band will not return to its normal length once it has reached its elastic limit as it will be plastic, and I support my prediction with Hook's Law. To make this a fair test I will add and remove the same weight each time. To make my measurements as accurate as possible I will take the reading by placing a mirror behind the meter ruler and placing the pin through the bottom of the rubber band. I will then taking the reading from eye level

  • Word count: 662
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Science
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