Springs and Simple Harmonice Motion. The aim of my coursework is to investigate the properties of a spring when masses are suspended from it undergoing simple harmonic motion. The experiment was set up as follows: The length of the spring without a mass suspended from it was measured. A 0.05kg mass was then suspended from the spring and the spring was measured again. The length without mass was 0.164m and the length with 0.05kg suspended was 0.249m. Using this data I can work out that the extension of the spring was 0.085m (0.249 - 0.164). By using the formulas: F=ke and F=mg (F = Force(N), k = Spring constant, e = Extension(m), m = Mass(kg), g = acceleration due to gravity(ms-2)), and taking g as equal to 9.81 I can work out the spring constant (k) by doing the following: F = ke Rearrange formula to get k F/e = k I know that F = mg and e in this case is 0.085 m is 0.05kg and g is taken as 9.81ms-2 Therefore, F = 0.05 x 9.81 F = 0.4905N Having found F I can use this to work out k: k = F/e k = 0.4905 / 0.085 k = 5.77 (3sf) The spring constant in this case is 5.77. Using k I could predict the extension of this spring if the weight suspended from it was known or the weight suspended from it if the extension was known. However, as I have only done this experiment one time and not changed the mass at all I cannot be very sure that my results are accurate. To be
Investigation to Study the Origin of Earthquakes Background An earthquake occurs when forces inside the earth become strong enough to fracture large masses of rock and make them move. This sudden break releases energy which travels through the earth as a series of shock waves. Earthquakes occur at plate margins. Earthquakes only occur in rocks which are brittle and which will snap or break suddenly. When this happens earthquake waves are released. They are like sound waves. They do not occur in liquid or plastic materials. No earthquakes originate in the mantle because it is a plastic material. Definitions: P Waves - Primary or push/pull waves L Waves - Long waves S Waves - Short waves Brittle - Will break or rupture suddenly Plastic - Can be distorted but does not return to its original shape Elastic - Can be distorted but returns to original shape Stress - When forces are placed on an object Strain - The way stress is reacted to. Plan * I am going to design an experiment to look at the way different materials react to stress. Some of the materials chosen are brittle and some re plastic. The brittle material will simulate the rock needed to produce earthquakes. * I will use the following materials: Wooden Cane Chew stick Bread sticks Chew bar * I plan to add weights to the above objects and record how they bend or deform up to breaking point. The
I am going to be looking at three plays, they are 'Billy Liar', 'Spring and Port Wine' and, 'Ernie's Incredible Illucinations'. 'Billy Liar' is about a boy with a very vivid imagination.
Plays Comparison I am going to be looking at three plays, they are 'Billy Liar', 'Spring and Port Wine' and, 'Ernie's Incredible Illucinations'. 'Billy Liar' is about a boy with a very vivid imagination. As he tries to live in his fantasy world, he lets go of reality, leading to all sorts of problems. 'Spring and Port Wine' is about a Bolton family The first difference is the style of the plays. 'Billy Liar' and 'Spring and Port Wine' are both very naturalistic. However, 'Ernie's Incredible Illucinations' is surrealistic. The writer intends this. If we look at the plays and try to compare them, we find that the only difference is 'Ernie's Incredible Illucinations', which takes an idea of the characters imagination, one step further. Ernie imagines things that then become real, and as an audience, we see the effect of his imagination on everyone around him. 'Billy Liar' and 'Spring and Port Wine' show us the inside of the characters imagination. In that way 'Ernie's Incredible Illucinations' show us a reality, the other two plays show us the 'made up' world, so that although the characters think fantasy thoughts, these thoughts do not affect life around them. The cultures of the time were evolving, children were trying to voice their views and make a statement about themselves. All the plays have a rogue character, trying to break free from the Victorian vision of a child
Year 11 RS Qur'an on origin of the universe The science of modern cosmology, observational and theoretical, clearly indicates that, at one point in time, the whole universe was nothing but a cloud of 'smoke', this is what Muhammad claimed of how the origin of the universe was. This is used in defence of Muhamad as he was an illiterate person and especially not a scientist so there was no way he would have known that the origin of the universe was a cloud of smoke. This then proves that he must have been sent the revelations through Allah because there was no way he would have known that. Qur'an on seas and rivers Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density.1 For example, Mediterranean sea water is warm, saline, and less dense, compared to Atlantic ocean water. When Mediterranean sea water enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 meters with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth. Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier. The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two
Radio Waves With wavelengths varying between 0.5 cm to 30,000 m, radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum and can channel innumerable forms of data through air, usually over millions of miles. Radio waves are not just transmitted from radio stations and onto one's boom box; but are also emitted by stars. Technologies such as communication, wireless networking , AM and FM broadcasting, GPS, radars, satellite communication and microwaves rely on radio waves to function. Radio waves are a long-wave pattern of radiation that transfers energy through the interaction of electricity and magnetism. In 1864, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell developed the electromagnetic theory; a mathematical theory that established that magnetism and electricity were associated. In the 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell's theory by discovering long- wavelength radio waves and confirmed it in his book, "Investigations on the Propagation of Electrical Energy". In his experiment, an induction coil producing high voltage was connected to a metal pedestal where a spark produced electromagnetic waves that reached the resonator. Here, an electric current was produced and formed a spark in the spark gap that helped Hertz detect the radio waves. Consequently, Hertz's discovery of the radio waves sparked new inventions and technologies.
AIM To observe the effect that different gas pressures have on an electric discharge passed through a discharge tube. BACKGROUND INFORMATION The high voltage produced by the induction coil is applied across the terminals inside the discharge tubes. One plate (the cathode) becomes highly negative and releases a ray (cathode ray or electron). The electron passes through the gas in the tube and excites electrons in the atoms of the gas contained in the tube. The pressure of the gas determines the density of the atoms and therefore the nature of the collisions which take place between the electrons and atoms. Therefore, different discharge effects under different pressures can be observed. APPARATUS * Power pack * Two plug-plug leads * One set of discharge tubes(with varying pressures) * Induction coil * Two plug-clip leads METHOD . Attach the induction coil to the power pack using the two plug-plug leads. Adjust the points on the induction coil to obtain a continuous spark from the coil. Switch off the power pack. 2. Set the power pack at the 6 volts and turn it on. 3. Attach the negative terminal of the induction coil to the cathode of the discharge tube marked with the highest pressure (50 mm Hg) and attach the positive terminal to the other end. 4. Observe the pattern that is produced in the tubes and describe it carefully. 5. Repeat the above procedure using
The aim of this investigation is to ascertain the effect of weight on a child's toy in relation to how high it will bounce.
Physics Sc1: 'Bug-up' Toy Investigation Aim The aim of this investigation is to ascertain the effect of weight on a child's toy in relation to how high it will bounce. Background After playing with the toy, I looked at how it worked. It is a very simple mechanism that is shown above, consisting of a plastic base with a coiled spring wrapped around the centre. On top is a red rubber 'sucker' that grips to the base when you press down. The spring slowly forces the two apart and it then flies up in the air. To find out the energy stored in a spring, you can just apply the equation for work done, replacing distance with compression. This way you get w.d. = Force x Compression. Then, to find out the energy stored in the spring, you need to know the area under the line when it is plotted on the graph, like in the example below: To find out the area, the equation is 1/2 x base x height. This makes the equation for the amount of energy stored in a spring 1/2 x force x compression. The force and the compression on the spring in this toy will always be the same, more or less. This energy stored in the spring will be equal to the toy's gravitational potential energy, as Einstein said that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form into another. Providing no energy is lost, the transfer of energy from the spring will be 100% compared to the amount of energy
Does an elastic band behave in the same way as a steel spring? Apparatus Clamp stand, rubber elastic band, 0.5N weights, 1 metre stick, clamp and pointer. Method We set the apparatus as shown above. First of all we took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. Then we steadily increased the force by adding a 0.5N weight each time to the elastic band. We did this until we reached 3N, and then steadily decreased the force by carefully taking of a 0.5N weight each time, until we had no weights attached to the elastic band. Next we again took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. We recorded the results of the length in cm at the pointer, each time a weight was added or removed and at the beginning and end when no force was being applied to the elastic band. We repeated the experiment 3 times to make sure our results were valid. We made sure the experiment was fair by keeping the following variables the same; Elastic band Apparatus Units on metre rule to record results (cm) Person taking measurement Amount of load added each time Person adding and removing weights Temperature Position Lastly, we worked out an average length in cm by adding the 3 results and dividing by 3. We then took 1 average from an other to work out the
An Investigation To See If Hookes Law Is Or Is Not reliable Aim: I am going to explore Hookes Law and produce a conclusion of my own whether or not Hookes Law is accurate Hookes Law states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied to it. Prediction: I predict that Hookes Law is true because we use springs to measure things such as we use the Newton metre to measure newtons this uses a spring and if spring weren't accurate to the force applied to it we wouldn't use a Newton metre. I believe each 100g weight will move the spring in equal or round about additions each time i.e. 100g = 1cm extension 200g a further cm or 2 etc. Factors: Factors that may affect this experiment are: * A moving spring * Spring passing yield point * Measuring from same point each time All these may or will affect the results of my experiment and alter the outcome in my conclusion. All these should and will be kept a constant. Apparatus: * A spring * Boss and Clamp * 30cm ruler * 100g weights Diagram: Method: * For safety measures I will stand up during the whole experiment * For fairness I will keep all the above factors a constant and use the same spring throughout. * I will go up in 100g intervals every time until I reach a certain point making sure I do not exceed the springs yield point (where the spring is stretched so far it cannot return to
Jamie Moir 11F 21 March 2002 How much will a Elastic band stretch after adding weights. Prediction I predict that the more weight added to the elastic band the more it will extend. The reason it extends is because it is elasticised. If I add too much weight it will reach its elastic limit. After that it will not extend and will become plastic. When I take the weights off I think the elastic band will relax to a size slightly bigger then it's original state. We did a similar experiment with springs instead of an elastic band. The more weight added the longer the spring extended. I have also taken into account Hooke's law. Hooke's law simply states that the extension of a spring (Or other stretch object) is directly proportional to the force acting on it. This law is only true if the elastic limit of the object has not yet been reached. Plan First I will attach an elastic band to a clamp-stand and will suspend the elastic band over the end of a table. I will then add a 100g (1 Newton) weight to the elastic band. I will then measure the elastic band and record the size. I will then repeat this with a 200g (2 Newtons) weight. I will repeat the experiment for every 100g up to 1000g.(10 Newtons or 1 kilogram) I will then do the same but instead of adding weights I will take weights off. Fair Test To make sure that this is a fair test I will use the same elastic band