Production of Alcohol by Fermentation

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Production of Alcohol by Fermentation

Introduction/ Aim:

Yeasts are microbes that produce carbon dioxide and alcohol from sugars. This is called fermentation. In this assignment I am going to try two methods of making alcohol from fruit juice (apple juice). One uses ‘free’ yeast cells; the other uses ‘immobilized’ yeast cells.

The process of using microorganisms to make useful products from an energy source is called fermentation. This is carried out in large vessels (open or closed) called fermenters. Microorganisms are cheap and easy to grow; they can be used to make antibiotics (penicillin), and useful proteins (insulin). It can also be used for foods such as Quorn. Quorn is also called single cell protein (SCP) e.g. fungi are grown and harvested in fermenters to make Quorn that is then used to make a range of vegetarian meals and SEP made from fungi is called Mycoprotein.  

In order for me to grow my microorganism these basic factors must be controlled:

  1. Temperature
  2. Ph (Potential Hydrogen)
  3. Nutrients/ Food (Glucose)
  4. Gases (Oxygen)
  5. Agitation

The final product then needs to be sterilised to prevent other microorganisms from infecting/ spoiling the product, this is because the solution is quite delicate and becomes easily spoiled.

Equipment/ Apparatus:

  • Yeast Culture                                                                        
  • Apple Juice                        
  • Calcium Chloride Solution
  • Sodium Alginate Solution
  • Distilled Water
  • Limewater      
  • Disinfectant
  • 2 Conical Flasks (250cm³)
  • 1 Bung and Delivery Tube    
  • 2 Conical Flasks (100cm³)
  • 250cm³ Beaker
  • 100cm³ Measuring Cylinder
  • 10cm³ Syringe
  • Filter paper and Filter funnel

Risk Assessment:                                                                      

When you are going to carry out this experiment you are going to be handling a lot of glass equipment and also a few chemicals that can be hazardous if it is handled in the wrong way.

  • You will be using conical flasks, bungs and delivery tubes, beakers, measuring cylinder and a syringe, all these equipments are made from glass so you must be absolutely careful when handling these specific equipments, if you was to accidentally drop one of them and it was to shatter, you must not pick it up directly with your bare hands, you must sweep it up with a broom and dispose of it in the laboratory bins.

  • When handling the Calcium chloride solution and the Sodium alginate solution you must be careful to not make contact with it directly towards your skin, It may cause any unknown affects that I do not  know about due to the fact that I don’t know much about these two chemicals so just be careful when handling them in your experiment.
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  • When you clean the equipment in the disinfectant do not make any direct hand to mouth reflexes, disinfectant can be highly dangerous if it was to get inside the human body and could easily result into death so when you are cleaning the equipment you must immediately go and wash your hands under warm running water using soap.

  • When you actually complete the whole experiment you must wash the equipment and your hands and clean up the area where you was working, apple juice may have spilled and the tables could become sticky so that is something that ...

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