Protein Synthesis and Chemotaxis in Bacteria

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The guidelines to assemble a polypeptide chain, also known as Protein are coded in a particular sequence in the DNA, which is called a ‘gene’. Before the certain type of protein is synthesised, the copy of the particular gene is made onto mRNA (messenger RNA). This is because DNA cannot leave the nucleus due to safety reasons and mRNA can exit the nucleus because its size is suitable to go through the nuclear pore. The process that occurs to copy the gene sequence from DNA onto the mRNA is called ‘Transcription’. Once it is done, mRNA leaves through the nuclear pore and travels either directly to the ribosomes or to the ones that are found on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.

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Here, the amino acid sequence is read and the guidelines are translated to form polypeptide chain (protein). Some modifications could occur in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum; these could be the addition of carbohydrates on to certain amino acids in protein. A few sugar groups could be attached to the chain of protein. This helps the folding process of protein to occur correctly and helps to stabilize the structure of it.

The next stage is when the produced protein is pinched off from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and taken to the Golgi apparatus with the help of Vesicles.

The polypeptide ...

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