stem cells research essay

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Sachin Patel                                                                                                                                             12tu4

Stem cells Research Essay

The human body consists of a number of different cells being very different in structure and function. For example the cells that makeup major organs vary from neurons that make up the brain. Although there are vast differences most of these cells generally have the same DNA makeup. Stem cells are particular cells that are regarded as the root cells for making up these organs of the body. These stems cells can be coaxed into making anyone of the 220 cells of the human body. These cells are referred to being ‘generic’ whereby one can copy exact copies indefinitely. Because of this reason stem cells are now used for many treatments such as diabetes and tremors of the Parkinson disease. Stem cells are referred to as self-renewing cells that can give rise to two daughter cells when undergone mitotic division. The result of this division can lead to a number of different cell types such as skin cells, liver cells etc.

Currently stem cell research is one of the most expanding areas of scientific investigation; the area has raised a number of new questions and produced many discoveries. For a large number of years scientist have worked on particular areas involving adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, derived from the inner mass of an early stage blastocyst (embryo). Due to their plasticity and unrestricted ability to self-renewal they are ideal for various therapies, regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury [4].  Adult stem cells are also known as somatic cells that can differentiate throughout the body, they have the ability to divide and produce all cell types of the major organs, and unlike embryonic stem cells they do not need a destructed embryo [4]. However adult stem cells can not supply cells for all kinds of tissues and do not hold as much promise as stem cells do from embryos. A lot of medical research has required the use of stem cells for potential drug therapy. Positively carried out clinical trials had provided hope for the use of bone marrow transplants in the treatment of leukaemia.

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So far bone marrow transplants have been very successful in medicine; bone marrow transplants were first used from two siblings in 1968 to cure severe combined immunodeficiency.  One ongoing study used embryonic neurons to implant into people suffering from the Parkinson’s disease, the study had found that some inserted cells survived for more than 12 years and had great improvement [1]. Stem cells have the ability to generate new functional blood cells in patient suffering from blood diseases [1]. Production of cells from a range of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets involved in blood clotting.

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