The aim of the courework is to find the unknow concentration of HCl

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Aim: The aim of the courework is to find the unknow concentration of HCl


Chemical procedure is used for determining the concentration of a solution. A known volume of a solution of unknown concentration is reacted with a known volume of a solution of known concentration (standard). The standard solution is delivered from a pipette so the volume added is known. This technique is known as . Often an indicator is used to show when the correct proportions have reacted. This procedure is used for acid–base, , and certain other reactions involving solutions.

Making the standrad solution

A stadard solution is a solution which the concentration is accurately known.the concertration is usely in mol dm  . when making the standard solution it’s in important that the correct mass is substanced acuratley and all of the solution successfully transferred to the volummetic flask.

Uses of volumetic solution

Volumetric solution can be used in many purposes, but it can also be used to find the following:

  • Concentration
  • Molecules mass of a substance
  • Percentage of an element present
  • Stoichiometry of an equation
  • Quality control



  • Watch glass
  • Goggle
  • Balance
  • Volumtric flask
  • De-ioned water
  • Beaker
  • Glass rod
  • Teat pippette
  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate
  • Label
  • Spatual
  • Filter funnel
  • Bench mat


  1. Using the + 0.1g balance, weighing approximately between 1.2g and and 1.4g of sodium carbonate into the small beaker. (Do not record the mass)
  2. using the + 0.1 balance, weighing the small beaker and its contents accurately, then recording the mass.
  3.  then transfer the content to the small beaker in to the large beaker. Weigh the small beaker again using the + 0.1 balance so I get  a accurate result.
  4. Next I add de-ionised water cautiouly down the side of the large beaker. Use about 150cm3 of water, and swirl the beaker to mix the contents.
  5. after this stir using a glass rod to dissolve it completely
  6. lastly transfer the solution in to volumaetric flask using the funnel.



                   pour down the glass rod

                   Remove the last drop of solution from the glass rod on to the funnel.

Wash the beaker, rod and funnel several times using de-ioned water from the wash bottle, letting the washing go in to the flask.

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  1. make up the mark on the volumatric flask with de-ionised water. Stopper firmly, and shake the flask throughlyto mix the contents.
  2. label the flask clearly, with your name, the date, and the contents of the flask.

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Part 2

Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative/ which can be used to determine the  of a known . Because volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A , called the titrant, of known concentration (a ) and  is used ...

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