# The aim of the experiment is to determine which factors affect the oscillation of a pendulum.

Introduction:

Pendulum, device consisting of an object suspended from a fixed point that swings back and forth under the influence of gravity. Pendulums are used in several kinds of mechanical devices; for example, certain types of clocks use pendulums.

The most basic type of pendulum is the simple pendulum. In a simple pendulum, which oscillates back and forth in a single plane, all the mass of the device can be considered to reside entirely in the suspended object. The motion of pendulums such as those in clocks closely approximates the motion of a simple pendulum. A spherical pendulum is not confined to a single plane, and as a result its motion can be much more complicated than the motion of a simple pendulum.

Aim:

The aim of the experiment is to determine which factors affect the oscillation of a pendulum.

Hypothesis:

The two factors I have chosen to experiment are length of the string and the angle at which the pendulum is released.

Any system, which carries out a repeated “to and fro”, is described as an oscillator. Simple examples are a mass on the end of a vertical spring, a pendulum, or a trolley tethered between two springs (A trolley oscillator). The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement of the system from its rest position. There are a number of other oscillations. Mechanical oscillations, for example, are in use everyday. The suspension units on cars and motorcycles are oscillators. They are, however, designed to provide smaller amplitudes as the oscillations continue: they dampen down. A car will bounce up and down only a few times before coming to rest.

Once started, oscillations gradually die away. The kinetic energy of the oscillation is transferred to heat through fiction, so that the amplitude gets smaller and smaller. However, for many oscillators, the time for one complete oscillation remains constant regardless if the amplitude. They behave like “clocks”. The time is called the period of oscillation is the number of complete oscillation. The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete oscillations in one second. It is measured in hertz.

However, mass has no effect on the period pf a pendulum system, although the longer the pendulum, the greater the period. Pendulum swings should be measured through a small angle. Large angle swings do not keep constant time until the angle is less than about 15º.

An oscillating system once started and left to oscillate keeps constant time. The frequency of its oscillation is called the natural frequency. If, now, a small force is applied at the end of each swing, any energy is converted during the oscillations is replaced and added to. This causes large amplitude oscillations to build up. A typical example is a child on a swing. A small push at the end of each swing builds up large amplitude.

So in the experiment I predict that the bigger the angle at which the pendulum is released the more oscillations will take place. ...