• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Human Genome Project.

Extracts from this document...


The Human Genome Project In this essay I will talk about the Human Genome Project. I will explain what it is, its benefits, disadvantages and also the ethical issues that have brought up controversy over the project. I will begin by explaining about DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which is the substance investigated in the Human Genome Project. It is the genetic material that defines who each individual is. It controls everything from hair colour to our personality. The DNA molecule itself consists of a double-helix held together by chemical components called bases. There are four bases; Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine(C) and guanine (G). The four bases bond into pairs, Adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine to create base pairs. There are about 2.9 billion base pairs in the human genome wound into 24 distinct bundles, or chromosomes. ...read more.


Identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA. 2. Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. 3. Store this information in databases. 4. Improve tools for data analysis. 5. Transfer related technologies to the private sector. 6. Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. Scientists in over 1000 laboratories around the world have contributed to the Human Genome Project. The largest contribution from a single institution being that of The Sanger Institute, the only British contributor, completed almost a third of the sequence. The major benefit to come from the human genome project is to have an understanding about how genetic diseases occur, how they can be treated and better yet, how they can be prevented. ...read more.


This is a tremendous accomplishment however some people feel that it is against nature and therefore wrong. The idea of designer babies takes this even further so that the parents can choose their offspring's personality, talents, height, hair colour and much more to create a 'super baby'. These ideas are extremely controversial especially as they can be linked with the ideas of Adolf Hitler and his plans to create a superior human race, which contributed to the largest war in history. A simple example is found in the following 1991 quotation from U.S. News & World Report: "Society's knotty decisions will become even more tangled as the massive Human Genome Project lumbers toward its goal of mapping the location of every human gene, including those that govern such traits as intelligence, coordination and grace. That knowledge will expand the potential of genetic engineering far beyond the correction of disease and push it toward the realm of social engineering. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    However, the rate at which they progress will differ for each individual. The three stages of Alzheimer's disease are described below. Mild Alzheimer's disease Common symptoms of mild Alzheimer's disease include: - Confusion - Poor memory and forgetfulness - Mood swings - Speech problems These symptoms are a result of a gradual loss of brain function.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Research Project - Could stems cells provide a cure for diabetes?

    4 star(s)

    "Adult stem cell biology is at the forefront of the emerging field of regenerative medicine, offering a source of cells to generate tissues that lack some of the ethical and political impediments inherent in embryonic, fetal, and cloned cells." - K�rsad T�rksen, a senior scientist in chronic disease at Ottawa

  1. Human Genome Project. The work on interpretation of genome data is still in its ...

    able to analyze a patient's genetic profile and prescribe the best available drug therapy from the beginning. This will not only take the guesswork out of finding the right drug, it will speed recovery time and increase safety as the possiblility of side effects is eliminated.

  2. Can relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) be prevented?

    They are then sent for a biopsy to check for malignancy (cancerous cells).1 Blood and immunological tests are also used; white blood cells have specific proteins on their surface, dependent on their type. Unlike the white blood cells, Leukemic cells show unusual and unique combinations of these surface proteins, leukemic phenotype.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    This reflects on the 1 in 3 children that have changed schools in the last five years in addition to moving from primary to secondary school. Those moves could be due to the 1 in 5 being excluded: 67% of those 1 in 5 autistic children being excluded more than

  2. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    As a result of this test I will be able to determine whether my results are higher than 75% in statistical significance. This is a Non-parametric measure of correlation. Variables: Key variables that I will need to control throughout the collection of my data are (7): * Identification of the

  1. Human Genome

    There are a number of different tests and procedures that can be performed during pregnancy. Each has distinct advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Prenatal diagnostic testing, prenatal screening and ultrasound scanning are outlined below in the order in which they are offered.

  2. Human Genome Paper

    information needed to further our basic scientific understanding of human genetics and of the role of various genes in health and disease. As refined through the discussions over the last half of the 1980's and defined in the NRC report, the Human Genome Initiative has several interrelated goals: 1.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work