The Hunt for the Higgs Boson

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Hamed Darvishian

Table of Contents

The Standard Model of Elementary Particles         3

The Higgs Theory (Boson, Mechanism and Field)        3/4

Discovery of the Higgs        4

Possibilities of Decay        5

Large Hadron Collider        5

The ATLAS detector        6

The G.R.I.D        7

The Aim and Benefits of the LHC         7

The Standard Model of Elementary Particles

The ‘Standard Model of Particle Physics’ describes the interactions between particles, where the fundamental force carriers are treated as mass-less particles. It is the theoretical framework that is used to explain the relations between complex particles and forces. The theory was first introduced by Sheldon Glashow through the electromagnetic and weak interactions, but was then developed on Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam. Although the Standard Model is able to explain the interactions between quarks, leptons and bosons, it does not include an integral property of particles, mass.

In 1964, Peter Higgs showed how to give mass to fundamental particles through the Higgs mechanism. The Higgs mechanism is where the symmetry of mass-less particles is broken and non-zero masses become possible.

This is just a hypothetical theory but if true, an extra particle called the Higgs boson should exist. A disturbance in the Higgs field is in actual fact a Higgs boson. When particles interact with the Higgs field they cause a clustering effect and thus, gain mass. The more massive the particle the more it’ll interact with the Higgs field and according to the Higgs mechanism, the more mass it will acquire. Many experiments around the world have illustrated Higgs’ ideas but the presence of one mysterious particle has been predicted. Although years of work have established ‘The Standard Model’, they have also predicted the existence of an unknown particle, named today as the Higgs particle.

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What is the Higgs Boson?

The Higgs boson, also known as ‘The God Particle’, can be defined as:

A hypothetical, electrically neutral, massive and scalar elementary particle.

It was first proposed by the English theoretical physicist Peter Higgs, at his time at the University of Edinburgh, when Higgs came up with the theory of the Higgs field.

What is the Higgs Field?

The Higgs Field is defined as:

A field hypothesized to account for spontaneous symmetry breaking in the standard model.

Particles in the standard model acquire mass from interactions with the Higgs field. Massive particles (‘massive’ meaning ...

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