• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Uses Of Enzymes in Medicine and Industry

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Uses Of Enzymes in Medicine and Industry Enzymes are used widely across medicine and industry. Through this essay I will go through some examples of each case, and explain the complexities of these examples. Enzymes are biological catalysts that enable specific reactions to take place. Catalysts are widely used in industry, to increase the rate of a reaction, or allow the reaction to take place without resorting to high temperatures and pressures. One of the most important and widely used enzymes in industry and everyday life is the catalytic converter in cars. They are devices incorporated into the exhaust system of cars which use catalysts to convert pollutant gases into harmless products. Another example of enzymes used in industry is the major role in the brewing industry. The yeast converts sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. However, these sugars are stored as starch in plants, consequently this meant the process of malting had to be undertaken. ...read more.

Middle

They are also faster. Many sweet syrups are formed that are needed throughout the food and drink industry. Three stages can be identified in starch modification. Firstly, amylases free "maltodextrin" by the liquefaction process. Such maltodextrins are not very sweet as they contain dextrins and oligosaccharides. The dextrins and oligosaccharides are further hydrolysed by enzymes such as pullulanase and glucoamylase in a process known as saccharification. Complete saccharification converts all the limit dextrins to glucose, maltose and isomaltose. The resulting syrups are relatively sweet and are regularly modified further. Treatment of glucose or maltose syrups with glucose isomerase converts a large proportion of the glucose to fructose, which is sweeter than glucose. High fructose syrups contain fairly equal portions of fructose and glucose. The high fructose syrups are in greater demand than pure glucose as food and drink sweeteners, because fructose is sweeter than glucose. Therefore when glucose can be converted in to fructose its value significantly increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

The reaction that is produced in biological system will then be converted to an electrical signal by a transducer. In this example of a glucose biosensor it uses glucose oxidase as its biological system. Glucose oxides catalyses the reaction between glucose and oxygen to produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. After this the glucose is then detected and measured according to the amount of oxygen consumed or gluconic acid produced. This results in a change in the electrical signal created by the transducer. Below is table showing the type of enzymes used in various treatments in medicine. Enzyme Reaction Use Asparaginase L-Asparagine H2O L-aspartate + NH3 Leukaemia Collagenase Collagen hydrolysis Skin ulcers Glutaminase L-Glutamine H2O L-glutamate + NH3 Leukaemia Hyaluronidase Hyaluronate hydrolysis Heart attack Lysozyme Bacterial cell wall hydrolysis Antibiotic Rhodanase S2O32- + CN- SO32- + SCN- Cyanide poisoning Ribonuclease RNA hydrolysis Antiviral ?-Lactamase Penicillin penicilloate Penicillin allergy Streptokinase Plasminogen plasmin Blood clots Trypsin Protein hydrolysis Inflammation Uricase Urate + O2 allantoin Gout Urokinase Plasminogen plasmin Blood clots This concludes my essay on the uses of enzymes in medicine and industry. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Enzymes uses in industry and medicine bio cw

    The Amyloglucosidase enzymes can also catalyse the condensation of glucose residues producing mainly maltose and isomaltose. Glucoamylases are sensitive to temperature, being inactivated at temperatures above 60 �C. However for this purpose this does not really affect its use. The optimum pH level of these enzymes is 4.0-4.5.

  2. The Uses of Enzymes in Industry

    The use of enzymes allows lower temperatures to be employed and shorter periods of agitation are needed, often after a preliminary period of soaking.

  1. The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    Enzymes can also be used to aid digestion where they are used to supplement amylase, lipase and protease produced mainly by the pancreas. An example is lactose intolerant people where they require lactose as their bodies are not producing it.

  2. Use of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    of enzymes are less harsh on the fabric so it results in a quality product. In the tanning of leather industry protease is used which is obtained from dog and pigeon faeces to remove hair and make the leather pliable.

  1. Uses of enzymes In industry and Medicine

    The result is a smoother, glossy fabric. Another use of enzymes in the textile industry is in a process called biostoning; during this process cellulase is put on the jeans to create a stonewashed effect without as much damage being caused to the garment compared to using pumice stones which were used originally.

  2. The use of protein digesting enzymes (proteases) in industry

    [3] In the brewery industry the use of proteases has been found quite useful. Brewers reduce the period of germination (normally takes 8-10 days, they reduce it to 4 days.), and supplement the malt with fungal amylases and proteases to obtain a consistently reliable malt without altering the flavour of the end product.

  1. Enzymes and their uses.

    micro organisms are kept in the fermenter till all the nutrients are used up nothing but waste gasses are removed during this process. Fed batch however requires environmental factors to constantly change, except the temperature. The culture media must contain a balanced mixture of nutrients and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen source.

  2. Childhood Leukaemia

    Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 70 cases of AML are diagnosed every year. For every four girls diagnosed with AML, five boys are diagnosed are also diagnosed with AML. Children less than 2 years of age have the highest risk of AML.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work