208 results found

#### Titration Lab Report

CHEMISTRY LAB Titration Curves of Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Processing the Data: Questions: . Examine the time data for each of the Trials 1-4. In which trial(s) did the indicator change color at about the same time as the large increase in pH occurred at the equivalence point? In which trial(s) was there a significant difference in these two times? In all the 4 trials, the time taken for color change and the time taken for a large increase in pH was the same, leaving no significant difference between the two values. 2. Phenolphthalein changes from clear to red at a pH value of about 9. According to your results, with which combination(s) of strong or weak acids and bases can phenolphthalein be used to determine the equivalence point? The combination of a Strong Acid and Base will give us the equivalence point: there will be a color change of phenolphthalein at pH 9. It is also observed that the reaction between a Weak Acid and Strong Base can be used to obtain a pH of 9. 3. On each of the four printed graphs, draw a horizontal line from a pH value of 9 on the vertical axis to its intersection with the titration curve. In which trial(s) does this line intersect the nearly vertical region of the curve? In which trial(s) does this line miss the nearly vertical region of the curve? For Trials 1 and 3, the horizontal line from pH 9 intersects the S curve. For

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• Word count: 1095
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### paper cones investigation

Investigation Report Aim Theory When an object is dropped in air, it accelerates. If it is allowed to drop far enough then it can reach its terminal velocity. This is the maximum velocity of the object during its fall and occurs when the upward force of air resistance acting on the object equals the weight of the object. So at terminal velocity... (P.31, Complete Physics, 1999, Pople, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-914734-5) (P.33, Physics 1, 2000, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78718-1) Looking for a formula for air resistance... F = force of air resistance ? = density of air = 1.2kgm-3 c = coefficient of drag for the object / dimensionless A = cross-sectional area of object hitting the air / m2 v = velocity of the object / ms-1 (http://damonrinard.com/aero/formulas.htm) Looking for a formula for the weight of an object... W = m.g W = weight / N m = mass / kg g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81Nkg-1 (P.55, Physics, 1991, Robert Hutchings, Nelson, ISBN 0-17-438510-2) So putting these formulae together... From the Physics AS course, v = velocity x = displacement t = time so References to the specification Forces and Motion 2821 Forces, Fields and Energy 2824 Aim of your investigation The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between the time taken for a paper cone to fall and the mass of the cone. Variables

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• Word count: 2095
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this.

Psychology Essay Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this. Schizophrenia is the label applied to a group of disorders characterised by severe personality disorganisation, distortion of reality, and an inability to function in daily life. Symptoms are mainly disturbances of thought processes, but also extend to disturbances of emotion and behaviour. There are two symptom categories - acute schizophrenia characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions; and chronic schizophrenia, characterised by negative symptoms such as apathy and withdrawal. However, DSM-IV has now moved away from these definitions and classified schizophrenia into three main sub-types: paranoid, disorganised and catatonic. Understanding Schizophrenia More research has, probably, been devoted to trying to understand the nature of schizophrenia than any other mental disorder. Somatogenic approaches have focused on the role of genetic mechanisms influencing the propensity to develop schizophrenia, while psychogenic approaches emphasise the effect of adverse childhood experiences, particularly abnormalities in family interaction in the aetiology of the disorder. Twin studies Twin studies offer a

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• Word count: 1708
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The advantages and limitations of electron microscopy.

The advantages and limitations of electron microscopy There are two main branches of microscopy that are pertinent to cell biology. These branches arise from the two types of microscope; the light microscope and the electron microscope. The basic principles of light microscopy have been known since circa 17th century, however improvements in lens manufacture in circa 19th century allowed the use of microscopy to be much more practically available and useful. This is increased ability inspired rapid research into both the design of microscopes and the preparation of specimens. However, the light microscope can only magnify objects bigger than 0.2 micrometres; due to its limited resolving powers. This is because it utilises a beam of light. Relatively, light has a long wavelength, this means that when there are two small points close together there is too much refraction and wave front overlap, the eye then only sees one point. This can also be considered in terms of objects "crossing the path" of the wavelength. The smallest wavelength of visible light is 400nm, the diameter of mitochondria is 1000nm, and therefore mitochondria cross the path of the light wave. However ribosomes have a diameter of 22nm, and do not cross the path of the light wave and are therefore not seen by the light microscope. As biologists came to realise these limitations they understood that the

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• Word count: 1308
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### investigating the relationship between the diameter and the current in a wire at its melting point

Investigation Report Aim Theory Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an object opposes the passage of an electric current. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm. Its reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in siemens. Resistance is the property of any object or substance of resisting or opposing the flow of an electrical current. The quantity of resistance in an electric circuit determines the amount of current flowing in the circuit for any given voltage applied to the circuit. Some formulae for resistance are where R is the resistance of the object / ? V is the potential difference across the object / V I is the current passing through the object / A (Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistance) where R is the resistance/ ? ? is the resistivity / ?m l is the length of the wire / m A is the cross section area of the wire / m A = ?() = ? where A is area / m d is the diameter / m Putting the formulae together, so (Ref. http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/PY106/Resistance.html) Aim of investigation The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between the resistance and the diameter of the wire. Variables Variable Independent / Controlled / Dependent Resistance D Resistivity C Length of wire C Diameter I Prediction Since the theory suggests that So So the resistance should be

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• Word count: 1203
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease caused by a mutation in a gene responsible for producing a protein called "cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator" (CFTR). Most people have 2 genes which produce this protein, but only one is needed to prevent the disease. This means that CF is "autosomal recessive", meaning that a person with the disease has a mutation in both CFTR (one mutated gene from each parent). Someone with one mutated gene and one normal gene is a carrier. Carriers do not show the symptoms of CF, as they have one working gene, but they may pass a copy of the defective gene onto their children. The CFTR gene is responsible for producing the CFTR protein, which allows Cl- ions to diffuse out of cells in water regulation. If the gene in the DNA is mutated, the mRNA produced in transcription will code for the wrong sequence of amino acids, so the protein made by the mRNA in translation will be the wrong shape, and therefore will not function correctly. This diagram shows the normal situation, where there is too much water in the mucus (outside the apical end of the cell). The sodium pump moves Na+ ions out of the cell, into the tissue fluid outside the basal end of the cell. The Na+ channel allows sodium ions to diffuse into the cell to replace those lost, causing a more negative water potential in the cell, so water moves out of the mucus

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• Word count: 717
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Experiment to determine the ethanol content of wine

Experiment to Determine Ethanol Content of Wine The purpose of this experiment is to determine the ethanol content of each of the wines and compare the value determined to the value quoted on the label. These results can then be used to conclude which region is more accurate in quoting the value of the ethanol content of the wine. This experiment takes advantage of the fact that ethanol is less dense than water in solution. The density of ethanol at 20°C is 0.789 g/cm3 while the density of water at the same temperature is 0.998 g/cm3. It then follows that different solutions of ethanol and water will have different densities also, because the relative volume of ethanol increases and water decreases so the density of higher percentage ethanol solutions will be less than the density of lower percentage ethanol solutions. This occurs because water molecules are much smaller than ethanol molecule, meaning more water molecules can "pack" into a smaller volume than ethanol molecules, meaning there is more mass per unit volume of water compared to ethanol, meaning it has a higher density. In this experiment, solutions of ethanol in water were made up, going from 0% to 20%. These were then weighed, and the density of the ethanol was calculated. From this, a graph of percentage ethanol solution against density was made. This graphs later compared to the density of the wine, so

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• Word count: 2599
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide using celery tissue to supply the enzyme catalyst

Investigating the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide using celery tissue to supply the enzyme catalyst Variables * Amount of celery * Concentration of celery, more or less watered down. * Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide (H202) * The amount of H202 * The temperature of H202 I am going to vary the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I think that varying the concentration of the liquid will be the best experiment to do and will hopefully give a strong set of results, which will enable me to obtain clear conclusions. Prediction The rate of an enzyme- controlled reaction depends on the temperature, pH, and concentrations of the enzyme and its substrate. The more enzyme molecules produced by a cell, the faster the reaction will proceed. Similarly, an increase in the substrate concentration will speed up the reaction if there are enough enzymes molecules to cope with the additional substrate. Therefore by diluting the hydrogen peroxide with water, this will decrease the rate of decomposition of the H202, and the less gas will be given off. The enzyme in the experiment is catalase. Hydrogen peroxide is poisonous and the catalase works to render the hydrogen peroxide harmless by breaking it down to water and oxygen. If the concentration of H202 is less, then there is more water present, and there are less hydrogen peroxide molecules, so there is less for the catalase to

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• Word count: 2343
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the effect of pH on Trypsin

Biology Coursework Plan Aim Investigate the effect of pH on Trypsin Prediction / hypothesis * pH will affect trypsin action * as pH increases, tryrpsin will show increasing activity up to an optimum pH * the action of the enzyme trypsin on the substrate egg albumen will be at a maximum at an optimum pH of around 7 (neutral) to 8 (slightly alkaline) see later about pH of duodenum * as pH continues above this, trypsin activity will decrease Background / Introduction Proteins are complex organic compounds consisting of amino acids joined by peptide bonds which form highly folded three dimensional or tertiary structures. The bonds that maintain the tertiary structure of the protein are a result of interactions between the R groups of the amino acids: disulphide bridges (strong covalent), hydrogen (weak) bonds, ionic or electrovalent bonds, hydrophobic interactions. Enzymes, such as trypsin, are globular proteins with a specific shaped active site into which the correct substrate can fit. trypsin protein / polypeptide peptides Trypsin is a protease enzyme: a hydrolytic or digestive protein that cleaves peptide bonds. It is produced in the pancreas in the form of trypsinogen, and is then transported to the duodenum of the small intestine, where the digestion of proteins to polypeptides and amino acids begins. The pH

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• Word count: 1425
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Cellular Respiration and the Role of Mitochondria

Cellular Respiration and the Role of Mitochondria Cellular respiration is the process of oxidising food molecules, such as glucose, to carbon dioxide and water and releasing the covalent bond energy in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell. Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles distributed through the cytosol of most eukaryotic cells. They are where cellular aerobic respiration occurs; indeed cells without mitochondria cannot respire aerobically. Cellular respiration consists of two broad phases, initially, glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid) Occurs, this is followed by the oxidation of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water. In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (The fluid in which cell organelles are suspended). The remaining processes take place in the mitochondria. The first stage, glycolysis is the anaerobic catabolism of glucose, it occurs in almost all cells. The process uses glucose and co-enzyme NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide), and yields 2 molecules of Pyruvic acid, as below C6H12O6 + 2NAD+ -> 2C3H4O3 + 2NADH + 2H+ The free energy stored in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid is somewhat less than that in the original glucose molecule. Some of this difference is captured in 2 molecules of ATP. The Krebs Cycle then decarboxylates the pyruvic acid resulting in a 2-carbon fragment of

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• Word count: 750
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science