Critically discuss the theories of modernisation and under-development.

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Chantella Shaban

Critically discuss the theories of modernisation and under-development

The concept of globalisation is one that has become widely used in debates in politics, business and the media over the past few years.  A decade ago the term globalisation was relatively unknown.  Today it seems to be on the tip of everyone’s tongue.  Globalisation refers to the fact we all increasingly live in one world, so that individuals, groups and nations become interdependent.

According to Held, Goldblatt and Perraton “globalisation is an idea whose time has come… yet it (globalisation) lacks precise definition”.  Despite the imprecision of the term “globalisation” the use of the term, according to Held and McGrew, reflects increased interconnectedness in political, economic and cultural matters across the world creating a “shared social space”.  Hyperglobalists argue that contemporary globalisation defines a new era in which peoples everywhere are increasingly subject to the disciplines of the global marketplace.

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Although economic forces are an integral part of globalisation, it would be wrong to suggest that they alone produce it.  Globalisation is created by the coming together of politics, social, cultural and economic factors.  It has been driven forward above all by the development of the information and communication technologies that have intensified the speed and scope of interaction between people al over the world.  As a simple example, think of the last 2008 Olympics.  Because of global television links some of the sports are now watched by millions worldwide.

Marx believed direct expressions of underlying economic organisation, ...

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