• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe competing criminological theories

Extracts from this document...


Report on the emergence and influence of positivist criminology theory on crime My scenario is that I am an undergrad student asked to produce a report outlining the influence and emergence positivist criminology has on crime. I am going to critically analyse the positivist theory and how this relates to crime, also I will discuss the emergence of positivist criminology theory and introduce the main theorists within positivist criminology. Criminology is the examination of scientific techniques to assess hypotheses and expand theories that elucidate the cause of crime and positions of crime. Criminological theory tends to be a very complicated matter. A number of schools of thought have been established and scientists, doctors and theologians have been theorizing for over five hundred years on what encourages crime in society today, ideas on theories of crime are continually changing. Several theories have been substituted by more contemporary methods and some act as early fundamentals for new recent ideas. Behavioural learning theory It was a man called Hans Eysenck who based on the psychological concept of training wanted to build a general theory of criminal behaviour. The idea of human conscience is central to his theory which he believes to be a leaned reflex. ...read more.


Most people would believe such murderers to be crazy. Holmes and De Burger (1989) dispute that such murderers do not experience any psychological illness, as in this type of situation there is naturally a motive of some sort. They explain four main types of serial killer. Firstly is the visionary motive type, this is where the killer carries out a crime based on voices or images in their head. The murder is generally impulsive and shambolic and only acted upon in reaction to the voices. Secondly is the mission-oriented motive type, this is where the killer has an objective or aspiration to get rid of a specific type of person. These killers are generally not considered psychotic but have great motivation to resolve a certain dilemma. Thirdly is the hedonistic type who kills for their own satisfaction. There are normally two sub types. The pleasure-oriented killer takes pleasure in the thrill of killing and does so for enjoyment. There is also the l**t killer, who kills for a s****l intention, gaining enjoyment by exploiting others. Lastly is the dominance/power-orientated type, who is hard to differentiate from the l**t or acts, although the s*x is only a form of control over the victim. ...read more.


Although the circuitous influence of additional reference crowds for instance the media - it is their own behaviour. Secondly, definitions, which mirror significance that an individual relates to their own behaviour. Thirdly, differential reinforcement relates to the definite consequences of a specific behaviour. It is suggested that individuals will do things they believe will outcome in rewards and will elude actions they believe will outcome in a penalty. Fourth, imitation, which includes watching what others are doing, whether they decide to imitate that behaviour will be dependent on the type of person being watched. The way that individual acts and the watched consequences of that behaviour for others. Akers at el, (1979) suggests that criminal behaviour is learned through a particular series of events. Firstly, the differential association of the person with different people who have favourable meanings of criminal behaviour, they supply a model of criminal behaviour to be imitated and social reinforcements for that behaviour, differential reinforcements will decide if that individual will carry on with that behaviour. Akers (1992) disputes that the social learning procedure defines the relation between social structural surroundings and criminal behaviour. The modernisation procedure and social disorganisation, damage conditions and financial discrimination and have all been linked with the behaviour of criminals. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

    They also show disadvantaged groups have a greater risk of becoming victims, for example unskilled workers are twice as likely to be burgled then other people. Thus understandably disadvantaged groups have a greater fear of crime and have a greater effect on their lives.

  2. Referring to the John Duffy "Railway Rapist" case to illustrate, discuss the strengths and ...

    Holmes (1989) cites FBI data, which reveal that in 192 cases of profile generation in 1981, arrests were made in 88, but in only 17% of these did the profile contribute to the arrest. Others ( Oleson, 1996) point out that the seminal work of the FBI in establishing offender

  1. What are the uses of both qualitative and quantitative research methods for the criminological ...

    A positive aspect of collecting data using quantitative methods is that results are easy to summarise and analyse as regards to understanding the trends and patterns of crime and victimisation. As the results are carried out in a structured way the interviewee the interview eliminates any potential bias from occurring

  2. The effect of appearance on the percieved criminality of young individuals

    More frequently they expressed an opinion that the individual was likely or unlikely to have committed the crimes. There appears to be evidence that schemas about gender and styles have an effect, and although the data gathered in this study does not show clear evidence of individuals being perceived as

  1. anti-social behaviour

    2.10 Furthermore, it has been established there is the high rate of non-compliance, with many breaching their orders and it has also been argued that ASBO'S are viewed as a type of reward, rather than addressing the causes of bad behaviour.

  2. subcultural theory

    instead created an alternative set of norms and values in which they can achieve success and status. Cohen argued that the delinquent subculture not only rejects mainstream culture, but also reverses it. For example, a high value is placed on deviant activities such as vandalism and stealing, which is condemned in normal society.

  1. Criminal Investigation Procedures

    Could you explain how your fingerprints were found at the crime scene? 8. How could your fingerprints have gotten at the crime scene? 10. Have you ever seen a gun at 270 Leek Road? 11. If so can you recognise this gun? (Show the picture of the gun) 12.

  2. Bullying in High Schools

    Studies suggest that boys are more assertive and therefore more likely to fight back than girls who are more submissive and consequently more likely to be withdrawn when being bullied (Glover, Gough, Johnson, & Cartwright, 2000). Therefore boys are more often than girls to externalise through action whereas girls internalize them through being meek.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work