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AS and A Level: Family & Marriage

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UK trends - gender

  1. 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
  2. 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
  3. 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.

Key UK trends - social class

  1. 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
  2. 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
  3. 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
  4. 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
  5. 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.

Key UK trends - ethnicity

  1. 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
  2. 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
  3. 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
  4. 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
  5. 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
  1. Evaluate sociological theories of the role of the family in contemporary society

    family is a place of relaxation so that workers can return to the workplace refreshed and ready for more work, therefore benefiting the economy and society. Both of these functionalists idealise this family structure and they do not take into account factors such as class, ethnicity, religion or any form of family diversity - focusing on a nuclear American Middle Class family’s role in society. Marxists would argue that society has been formed to benefit a capitalist society and economy therefore the functions of the family are structured to benefit this rather than the family itself and its members, they believe that the nuclear family is monogamous and patriarchal (Engels)

    • Word count: 1399
  2. Evaluate Murdocks view that the nuclear family is universal

    However, in non-western societies like the Nayar in southern India, Gough found the nuclear family to be more uncommon. In most families, men and women are polygamous, and families are matrifocal, as the men are mercenary warriors who don’t partake in raising children. Offspring of one common ancestress live under a single roof, including the families of the offspring. Each woman has her own room in the house and husbands would visit one at a time at night and leave in the morning.

    • Word count: 599
  3. Explain and assess the diversity of family structures in contemporary societies.

    However, as the industrial revolution took over agriculture into factory work people geographically dispersed to find work in urban areas. This is when a new family type was formed. Nuclear family structure was a result of males of extended families? intended to move in to urban areas with their partners and children to find better work. This as Murdock (1949) argues has since become the universal family structure as generations after this move were following the nuclear trend. In this respect, town and cities were mostly populated with upper-class and middle-class societies who were living in a nuclear structure but

    • Word count: 656
  4. The influence of culture on romantic relationships

    Therefore, relationships are seen as voluntary by those involved. In non-western cultures the groups tend to be the main unit of concern and these are known as ?collectivist? cultures. Here individuals are encouraged to be interdependent whereas individualistic in western cultures may promote freedom of choice in relationships. Collectivist cultures greatly shape relationships through family, group or community. Here relationships may in tern be involuntary in many cases where arranged marriages are factored in. With arranged marriages, parents play a significant role in who their children marry.

    • Word count: 657
  5. Sociology Research Paper - To examine how teenage pregnancy affects the teen mothers health and the family

    Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. In this context, the identification of poor people first requires a determination of what constitutes basic needs. The Researcher found out that during adolescence, teenagers often feel pressure to make friends and fit in with their peers. Many times these teens let their friends influence their decision to have sex even when they do not fully understand the consequences associated with the act. Teenagers have sex as a way to appear cool and sophisticated, but in some cases the end result is an unplanned teen pregnancy.

    • Word count: 4437
  6. Examine the ways childhood can be said to be socially constructed.

    He mainly used paintings to study middle-age childhood in Britain. He discovered that children were not that different to adults and that the law often made no distinction between the two. Children were seen as an economic asset which is drastically different to a child in modern society which portrays how childhood changes depending on the society. Many children needed to work in pre-industrial Britain so, it is easy to see that the needs of society economically are a factor that contribute to the construction of childhood.

    • Word count: 715

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Explain and briefly evaluate ways in which femininities are created and reinforced in contemporary society.

    "In conclusion, there are still traditional gender roles in our society that emphasise the dominance and power of men, encouraging and reinforcing that women should be more passive and domestic. However, there is more awareness today and these roles are forever being challenged, for example, the new 'ladette culture' that has come about recently, where girls and young women are taking on what has traditionally been male behaviour, ladettes involve themselves in binge drinking, casual sex and swearing. Also the 'poxy cupid' where in schools the slightest hint of sexism, is being challenged by fierce female pupils, behaviour designed to scare the teachers and even the most dominant males. Despite this, the roles we are 'taught' are still very powerful and influential because they are socialised into children from birth in the home, then reinforced in wider society, having an impact on their adult roles and personalities. Sociology - Naomi Harding"

  • Analyse the differences between primary and secondary socialisation

    "In summary, we have looked at certain key points about primary and secondary socialisation such as when they occur and what they teach us and it is reasonable to conclude that there are some vast differences between the two. Although they follow the same structure in that they both have socialising agents and agencies, there is a vast difference between what these agents and agencies teach us and what their purpose is. However, they are both vitally important when it comes to making an individual who they become in later life."

  • Using information from the items and elsewhere, assess the extent to which pupil subcultures are the cause of failure at school

    "To conclude I believe that subculture to some extend are the case of failure at school, in that a number of pupils do not value education, and focus on building a 'cool' reputation within their subculture. In most cases that means that the students with interrupt lessons and not do set tasks set by the teacher, which as a result will bring down achievement as they are not focusing on the information given by the teacher and also them kind of students are not allowing pro-school subcultures to learn because of the bad behaviour or interruptions going on in class. However I think subcultures vary in many aspects and different subcultures will have different ideologies depending where they live, their socio-class and the background they come from. Not all subcultures are anti-school, there are also pro-school subcultures, so we can not generalize subcultures. P.S I am not sure if I answered the question correctly, if not then SORRY. By Saida Murati"

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