Sociology Coursework Hypothesis and Aim: "Families and households at Glenthorne High School are structurally diverse" The aim of this research is to investigate whether families and households at Glenthorne High School are diverse; to see whether there are a variety of families and household structures. In order to carry out this research I will conduct a questionnaire asking pupils what type of family structure they live in. I am interested to investigate this because I personally have lived in a variety of different household structures, which is in agreement with the Rapports research into family diversity. Word Count: 91 Context and Concepts: The Rapport's believe that the nuclear family; a family consisting of an adult male and female with one or more children, own or adopted (George Murdock). The nuclear family is becoming less significant in contemporary society according to the Rapports; however this is only one aspect of diversity. Rhona and Robert Rapoport thought of five distinct elements of family diversity; these five are Organisational Diversity, Culture Diversity, Class Diversity, Life-Course and Cohort. I will be focusing my research on the Organisational (Structural) Diversity. In agreement with my hypothesis the Rapports have suggested that the Organisational diversity of the family has increased over the last 17 years; social trends research
Victoria Climbie died at 3.15pm on February 25th 2000. She died age 8 after severe physical abuse. Born on November 2nd 1991 in the Ivory Coast. When Victoria was seven she was sent to live in Paris with her aunt, Marie-Therese Kouao. They both flee France after false benefit claims. They arrive in London using false passport and claiming Victoria is called Anna. Kouao gets a job as hospital cleaner and they live in a hostel. Kouao meets Carl Manning on a bus and she moves into Carls flat in Tottenham by July. Within days Victoria suffers abuse at the hands of Manning. July 14th 1999 Victoria visits Central Middlesex hospital the daughter of the childminder suspects her of non-accidental injuries. Doctor believes Kouao's story that Victoria has been scratching scabies sores. Doctors alert social services as a precaution. Haringey social worker, Lisa Arthurworrey and PC Karen Jones are assigned to case. They cancel home visit after hearing scabies story. July 24th, back at the hospital with scalding to her head and face. Doctors immediately suspects it's deliberate but Kouao tell Pc Jones and Arthurworrey that she did but to stop her itching the scabies sores. August 6th Victoria is discharged - authorities believe Kouao's excuses and Victoria returns home with Kouao and Manning. October-January 2000 Manning forces Victoria to sleep in a bin liner in the bath every night.
JOHN SMYTH SOCIOLOGY ESSAY (1500 words) EXAMINE THE CONTRIBUTION OF FUNCTIONALIST EXPLANATIONS TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FAMILY Functionalists believe that the family is a positive institution and view the ideal modern family as being the Nuclear Family. The nuclear family is described by Giddens (1989, p385) as a family 'which consists of two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children'. Abercrombie et al (2006 p168) defines the nuclear family as 'Social units comprising a man and a woman living together with their children' Regardless of individuals definitions of what the nuclear family is, it is perceived as a family consisting of a father, mother and their children.The functionalist view (most popular in the 1960's) of the nuclear family comprises of a breadwinner husband and dependant wife and children - the 'cereal packet family' (Leach 1968) - this view of the family is also taken by sociologists like Murdock and Parsons. Functionalists take a consensus approach towards society and believe social institutions such as a family play an important part - i.e. the family makes a positive contribution towards society. Although Murdock and Parsons put across are similar themes - they believe that a nuclear family is best suited for a healthy society. Functionalists see the family as essential to the smooth running of society, therefore they
Is the nuclear family in decline? The family is an integral part of the social structure, responsible for primary socialisation of the next generation of society, an important unit of economic consumption and a stabilising influence on its members. Over recent years there has been intense debate about the decline of the nuclear family as an institution and the consequences of this decline for society as a whole. There are many factors cited as evidence of a marked decline of the traditional nuclear family, these will be examined below. Many social commentators argue that the family is vital to harmony and consensus in society. Functionalists view the nuclear family as being the ideal family form to promote the social integration, satisfaction, value consensus and social solidarity necessary to hold society together. Therefore any perceived changes to the nuclear family tend to be seen as having a negative impact on social order as other family forms are not seen as being as effective in providing the necessary functions for society's existence. The New Right also take this view and claim that the emergence of an underclass with single parenthood, particularly female headed households, the dominant family form poses a considerable threat to society as we know it. They argue that single parenthood transmits deviant norms and values through inadequate socialisation by only
Examine the view that nuclear family did not exist in Britain before industrialisation Whist Britain was undergoing industrialisation, a lot of societal changes took place. Changes that not only affected population but had an impact on family life and the way it was run. Parsons (1955) believed that families were mainly extended before industrialisation which meant that nuclear families didn't exist during pre-industrialisation. These extended needed the kinship to be able to be producers as it was mainly an agricultural economy, so they would work together mainly farming as their labour. This was then used to provide clothes, shelter, and food etc. So the family network was a strong one as they played different roles in the household to maintain it. That is why Parsons believed that all this changed when the manufacturing economy came into place, and this caused four major changes to the family. This new economy was now demanding a workforce which was more geographically mobile, so to take advantage of this opportunity people were more likely to move away from their villages to the towns, therefore the family ties were broken and nuclear family was formed. Parsons also believed that with the state taking over some of the family's functions like education, wealth and welfare the extended family wasn't needed and it was easier for them to move away. They could also buy mass
Altruists Attract and Origins of Mating Behavior In the experiment study altruists attract researchers concluded that people tend to co-oporate with the more attractive members of the opposite sex.
Altruists Attract and Origins of Mating Behavior In the experiment study altruists attract researchers concluded that people tend to corporate with the more attractive members of the opposite sex. Besides, as more one member of opposite sex is showing corporation, the more attractive it may seem to other member of the opposite sex. No doubt, altruistic behavior is beneficial in both genders which are in the long-term relationships because they share the same resources or care about their children. Research shows that people who are corporative are viewed by others as more attractive and kind and these are the values which people count for when are looking for mating partners. For example, males tend to give more money to women beggars than to the same sex beggars-males. Second article talked about origins of mating and how people choose partners when it comes to mating. Charles Darwin was the first who proposed the theory of sexual selection, emphasizing that mating behavior can be explained by evolutionary change; preferences for a mate and competition for a mate. Humans never choose mating partners just by coincidence; they tend to use strategies in order to find the most appropriate mate. Also, our ancestors used strategies for mating, they chose to mate with the opposite sex members who were reproductive in order to pass on genes to the next
Assess the functionalist position on the role of family Functionalist sociologists believe that for society to run smoothly and to maintain a successful stable economical system, certain functional perquisites need to be met; these are there to ensure social order. So societal norms and values need to pass on to the next generation and for this to happen the family is of great importance to achieving this. That is why functionalists support the family as it is the basis of each society; they carry out the job to teach them the four functional perquisites needed for survival. In 1949 Murdock found that in 250 societies that he had studied there was some form of the nuclear family that existed therefore he claimed that that the family provides four essential functions for its members and the rest of the society. These four were the; reproductive, sexual, educational, and economical functions. Firstly they look at reproduction from the aspect of producing the next generation for society. This ensures survival of the community which can't be done without children and these new members also benefit society in regard to taking up jobs which will be more effective to society. The second one to look at would be the sexual function of a family; this does not just serve the society in a positive way but is beneficial for the individuals themselves. Unapproved sexual behaviour can
Patriarchy, a form of social organisation in which the male (father) has the most authority in the family, the family/society is male dominated. Equality is the state of being equal in status, rights and opportunities. Within relationships equality has changed over many years. Roles and opportunities have changed as a result of social factors and movements such as feminism and change in cohabitation and same sex marriages. In relationships domestic housework, opinions, childcare and career opportunities have all been affected by equality. In 1973 the 'march of progress' introduced the symmetrical family, the equal division between both male and females within a household meaning domestic chores and childcare were fairly divided. Young and Willmott believed that things where gradually improving between men and women as women could go out to work and men would help with housework/childcare. They saw this as the 'new man'. As a result of these social changes there was a rise in symmetrical families, women could now pursue in a career, geographical mobility and the progression in technology also meant that there were better standards of living. However radical feminist Anne Oakley believed that the unpaid role of the housewife was socially constructed around the time of the Industrial Revolution. With the change from the Domestic to the Factory system men stopped working at
Assess the Functionalist view on the role of the family in society? (24 marks) Functionalists, such as Emile Durkheim, believe that society works like the human body. The human body has vital organs in order to work, whereas society has vital institutions, such as the family. Functionalists believe that the family works interdependently with other institutions in society and that the nuclear family meets some of society's functional pre-requisites. Above all the family contributes to social solidarity, the need to function as a collective, it does this by promoting the collective conscience, the realisation that there is something bigger and more worthwhile than the individual and that individuals must sacrifice their selfish desires for the good of the collective, and the value consensus, an agreement on shared norms and values. Alternatively, there are Marxists, such as Karl Marx, that believe that institutions are creating by the ruling class in order to control the working class. Marxists believe that the functions of the family are performed purely for the benefit of the ruling class. This view contrasts sharply with the functionalist view that the family benefits both society as a whole and the individual members of the family. Some Functionalists, such as Murdock, argue that there are 4 functions of the family that only the nuclear family can teach. Teaching of
Explain the similarities and differences on Functionalist and Marxist perspectives on the role of education. In this essay I will be explaining the similarities and differences between the perspectives Functionalist and Marxist's have on the role of education. A Functionalist perspective on the role of education sees education as contributing in several ways to the continued stability of society. Education has numerous functions (A term used by functionalists to describe the way in which a social institution contributes to the survival and well-being of society. McNeil 2003). These functions include: * The passing on of norms and values to the next generation. * The sharing of culture, creating a sense of identity within a community or society. * The distribution of people to different roles within society. There is a 'meritocracy' where the rewards go to the people with talent and ability and the ones who work for the rewards. Social background is not seen as important, it is accepted as fair by most people because of the teaching of a shared value system. This system lets 'social mobility' happen, this is when there is movement between the social classes. The Functionalist sociologist Parsons (1950s) sees school as an important unit of secondary socialisation, taking over from the family as children grow older. He argues schools provide a bridge between the