Explain the relationship between family structure and industrialisation Industrialisation was the time in Britain (1750s) when production changed from being agriculturally based, over to factory based. Before this the economy in Britain was built on agriculture and farming. The majority of people were peasants who did not own the land they worked on but worked for the local lord or lady. People also lived much shorter lives than they do today, usually dying in their 40s. It was industrialisation that lead to urbanisation as people moved from the countryside to the cities, the first major towns being places like Manchester, Preston and Liverpool, all to the North of England. It was this that lead to people becoming geographically mobile. Parsons believed that the pre-industrialisation family worked together as a unit of production, meaning they worked and lived together on the land, producing goods. At this time for Parsons the family was a classic extended family as people lived close together in the countryside and needed quite large families to maintain the land. So when industrialisation occurred and people began moving to the city, Parsons saw this as meaning that the families' structure changed to an isolated nuclear family because people moved away from their extended family and out into the city for factory work. This meant that the family lost functions as
Examine the View that the Family is a Universal Institution Many sociologists regard the family as the foundation of society. It forms the basic unit of social organisation and it hard to imagine how society could function without the family. The family is considered a good thing for individuals and society. There are many variations of the family, yet in general the most common type is the nuclear family. This consists of two adults of different genders with two dependant children. George Murdock took a sample of 250 societies and concluded that in some form the family existed in every society. Therefore the family is a universal institution; as there is a type of family in every society worldwide. Murdock concluded, "the nuclear family is a universal human social grouping, either as the sole prevailing form which more complex forms are compounded, it exists as a distinct an strongly functional group in every known society". The family is universal because it performs essential function necessary for survival and continuity. This then proves that the family works efficiently together and uses its resources effectively in society. The family's purpose for society is inseparable from its purpose for its individual members. The sexual function is a good example that the family serves both at the same time in the same way. The husband and wife have the right of sexual contact
Introduction I will be examining how cultural deprivation affects the educational attainment of students. To gain the best results and produce a detailed analysis of results I take will only examine two ethnic groups, Indian and African Caribbean students. I will then be able to compare educational attainment and discover reasons why the two different ethnic groups have varied educational attainment levels. This is an important area of sociology as it appears to be the case presented by statistics showing how some ethnic groups under achieve compared to others. 2002 GCSE exam results showed how Indian students were among the top performing ethnic groups were as black African Caribbean students had the lowest levels of attainment. The concept of cultural deprivation will have will have many different aspects that I will need to consider. One form of cultural deprivation is that some students may receive less support from family then others for many reasons. Parents have other dedications such as work or look after other siblings. Some students may not need the motivation to do well from the family and may still do well. My aim will be to compare educational attainment of Indian and African Caribbean students. I will then try to establish a link between attainment levels and cultural deprivation. Objectives . Study educational attainment of ethnic groups and establish
Sociology Essay: Assess the view that marriage and family life benefit men more than they benefit women. Assessing the view that men benefit more from marriage and family life than women, I believe this is true and women cannot gain many benefits from marriage or family life. One reason men benefit from marriage and family life is that we live in a patriarcle society, male dominated society, and what men want they get. Once a couple are married, the woman becomes the man's property and he can use her for sexual favours and is getting free labour from her as she is a housewife. Men in the 1950's believed they were the breadwinners and brought the money home whilst his wife would stay at home and do the housework and childcare. Now a day, both men and women go out to work and provide for their family financially. Feminist's believe in equal rights and legal protection for women. They believe women should not be pressured into staying at home to do housework and childcare by themselves. Instead they should go out and get a job and have a social life just like their husbands. However, functionalists believe in the nuclear family, parents and children, and anything outside of that family are dysfunctional, for example, single parent families, gay couples. In the traditional nuclear families, the roles of husbands and wives are segregated. Parsons' functionalist model of the
Assess the nature and extent of secularisation in society today To fully asses the view of secularization on society today, we need to look at the definition of secularization, according to Bryan Wilson he defines secularisation as the process whereby religious thinking, practices and institutions lose social significance, in other words declining in religion. There are many aspects to the secularisation which I will try to discuss in this essay such as, the decline in church membership and attendance, the rationalization of de-sacralisation of society, the disengagement of the church from wider society, the growth of religious pluralism and many more, which all have a part to the reason of secularisation in society today. The decline of church membership can be explained in different ways. It is said that less and less people are attending church than people were attending church 50 years ago due to the change in society such as the state has change. Before the church use to provide food, education and other services to people and the church was the main steam in the society. Now the state is there to provide for people, now they have introduced free health care such as the NHS, the welfare state, the benefit system and others, so people are now relying on the state rather than the church therefore the attendance of the church has declined as people don't need to go there
Examine some of the reasons for the growth of NRM(TM)s and why some people argue that traditional churches and denominations no longer meet people(TM)s needs.
Examine some of the reasons for the growth of NRM's and why some people argue that traditional churches and denominations no longer meet people's needs. The definition of an NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin. There are many reasons for the growth of NRM's and why some people argue that traditional churches and denominations no longer meet people's needs because many sociologists believe that changes in society lead to changes in religion. NRM's focus on the individual and don't usually have a church, they have no collective ritual or worship and normally lack in any developed theologies or ethics. The growth of media has encouraged the development of NRM's. People now get their morals and values from the media instead of religion. For example people read fashion and celebrity based magazines instead of the bible. Spirituality is now searched for more within people's lives and they will find this with NRM's and this is what is drawing people towards them. Nowadays people tend to focus more on industry and making money for themselves instead playing a big part in one community. Being part of an NRM is now more socially acceptable and people can relax more and live their own lives freely. Marginalisation has also encouraged the growth of NRM's. Weber argues that NRM's appeal to people
Explain and briefly evaluate ways in which femininities are created and reinforced in contemporary society.
Question 3. Explain and briefly evaluate ways in which femininities are created and reinforced in contemporary society. Everyone at birth is born as a blank slate, it is our families and our environment that socialise us and teach us the appropriate ways of behaving relative to our gender. We learn our gender roles in society from primary socialisation (the family) initially. These initial ideas are expanded on and reinforced buy secondary socialisation, (peers, media, education, workplace and religion) throughout our lives. Firstly, the family socialises femininity in a number of ways. A study by Ann Oakley argues that gender socialisation takes place in 4 ways: . Manipulation - parents encourage behaviour which is seen as normal for the child's gender and discourage deviant behaviour. For example, girls are encouraged to take ballet lessons whilst they are discouraged from getting dirty, playing football. 2. Canalisation - this involves channelling the child's interests to toys and activities seen as 'normal' for her sex. Such as girls playing with Barbie dolls, giving them an interest in hair and clothes; traditional 'girly' interests. 3. Verbal appellation - the names that children are called which teaches gender appropriate behaviour, for example, calling little girls 'princess' and the tone of voice used is generally softer with girls than it is with boys. 4.
Assess the view that the functions of the education system is to select and prepare individuals for their future
Assess the view that the functions of the education system is to select and prepare individuals for their future The term education can be defined as a type of secondary socialisation, where individuals learn the knowledge and skills necessary to function in society. The education system is central to the way that we organise our society, it is also central to the way we see ourselves in society in the future. It forms part of way that we pass on social norms, values and morals to individuals. The education system was introduced in 1880 due to the fact that the bourgeoisie required a workforce who could read and write. Over the years the education system changed to meet the needs of society and the economy within it. An example of one of these changes occurred in 1976 when Prime Minister Callaghan made a speech at Ruskin College about how education was not meeting the needs of many employers. Meaning that certain skills needed for the workforce, such as ICT were not being taught in schools and this needed to be changed. The functionalist view supports the fact that the education system is there to select and prepare individuals for their future. They believe that education is one of the main institutions within society and that it prepares individuals for adult society. From Durkheim's key terms it shows how functionalists believe that education is a type of secondary
Evaluate the contribution of Marxist thought and understanding of the development of the family Overall Marxists see the family as serving to maintain the position of the ruling class. Marxists see the family as a very important institution for the ruling class as it creates part of the superstructure and therefore is responsible for passing on norms and values. However Marxist have developed a very negative view on the family and its teachings. Marxists such as Fredrick Engel's came up with the theory, "the origins of the family", this was his idea of how the family developed throughout time and it gave an understanding of why it developed. Primitive Communism was stage 1 where property was owned collectively and there were no restrictions with sexual relationships and mainly an extended family. Then as the family moved through stages feudalism and then capitalism more restrictions were placed on the family such as sexual restrictions, this eventually led to the creation of the monogamous nuclear family. Engle's saw the development of the monogamous nuclear family as reflecting the needs of male property owners to ensure that their private property was being passed onto the heirs, and the monogamous nuclear family provided tight control on women since they could only be married to one person at a time so this eliminates the possibility of more wife's and making it difficult
Yaman Examine ways in witch social policies & laws may influence families & households In my essay I will be looking at how social policies & laws effect, marriage rates, divorce rates, cohabitation etc. Most government policies gave tried to protect the individuals within the family and some have been aimed at maintaining the traditional nuclear family. Policies can be seen as direct, laws affecting the family itself, or indirect, laws affecting other areas such as education, the workplace etc, and direct policies such as these for e.g. laws effect when we can, how may people we can marry etc, they also effect what we do in the family i.e. martial laws, laws also cover adoption & other such issues. There are also indirect policies witch can affect the family & type of households such as, what type of school we go to. A study found of 152 children in Exeter found that children being brought up by both parents experienced fewer health, school and social problems than those whose parents had split. It was also found that children from re-ordered families were at least twice as likely to have problems with health, behavior, schoolwork and social life and also to have a low opinion of them. The Child Support Agency (CSA) was set up in 1993 to make divorced fathers more financially liable for their children. The New Right believes that families should stay together no