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AS and A Level: Media

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  1. Free essay

    Assess the role of the media

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    increase and extend democracy in the UK. Dahl, a pluralist would agree with this view of the media, that the media informs us, and he says that the media demonstrates thousands of millions of different views and opinions, it broadcasts many different takes on various events and portrays parts of the news in millions of different ways. The wide range of media sources, Dahl says, are good because it allows individuals to sift through all the information and opinions and form their own views - it gives us choice in what, or who, we listen to.

    • Word count: 1220
  2. In discussing using secondary research to answer the question of Does internet usage affect the way people aged 34 and under behave? and what was learned in the process, it is safe to conclude that secondary research is the best way to appro

    The process of gathering the sources is fairly simple, but the process can sometimes take a long time due to the quality of some sources compared to others. When evaluating sources, one must makes sure of the following things, that the source is authentic, credible, representative and meaningful (Savage 29). These four things help in choosing the best sources for a research project. The Statistics Canada source was chosen because StatsCan is considered to be a reliable source among many people and has built up a good reputation for being a reliable source.

    • Word count: 1431
  3. Free essay

    In what ways television affects

    Hagell & Newburn's study compared young offenders viewing behaviour with non-offending teenagers. They found the differences were few between the two groups and what they watched, with hardly any having seen the films that were causing the concern at that time. A few members of either group had an interest in a violent output. The young offenders had less access to different media types. Other factors instead of media could have been causing the differences in their behaviour. The other context being analysed is Bandura Ross Ross who looked at whether children learnt behaviour through observation.

    • Word count: 1200
  4. AS Sociology Coursework

    By this she means that female bodies are depicted as playthings for male audiences. The view of Mulvey is appropriate because It fully applies to my hypothesis as it suggests that women in general within the cinema side of the media, adopt passive and subservient roles and as a result, linking with my hypothesis, are often treated as sexual objects. However, Mulvey's work has been criticised in terms of active males and passive females, as sociologist Sofia (1989), as she indicates that the woman remains almost without any sexual identity in psychoanalysis since she is entirely defined in relation to the man.

    • Word count: 1223
  5. To what extent can it be argued that violent films cause violence in society?

    It is also backed up by theorists; including Shannon and Weaver (1949) as well as Marcuse in One Dimensional Media (1964) who both argue in favour of the idea that the media can directly change behaviour, hence leading to the conclusion that violence in the media should result in violence in society. Bandura and Ross in the Bobo Doll Experiment (1963) found a correlation between exposing young children to a violent media message and a violent response when placed in the same scenario. Eron (1967), investigating the claim that violence in the media caused violent behaviour by interviewing schoolchildren, found a correlation of 0.12 to 0.33 between the preference for violent television programs and aggression.

    • Word count: 1436
  6. Assess the claim that 'The News is selected according to the demands of the target audience'

    This is backed by the functionalist perspective as well as pluralist theories. Functionalism (Durkheim) identifies the media and in turn news as constructed according to the social consensus. This means that news is selected and presented according to the demands, norms and values of society and in turn the target audience. Pluralist theory would also agree with the view in question. This is because pluralists believe that media consumptions and consumers are the main driving force behind media output- as shown in the market dimension, within which audiences choose what media to consumer, and the libertarian dimension, within which audiences have a wide choice of media options to choose between.

    • Word count: 1362
  7. 'Choose a text featuring vampires to analyse - it could be a film, a television programme, a novel, a short story, a cartoon, a comic book, a toy or even a news story. Then offer a feminist reading of your text, discussing how femininity is portrayed'

    (Owen, 1997, 81-83) Buffy differentiates itself from market competitors by showing American adolescence and a variety of genres: action-adventure, mystery, horror and the occult, and comedy. The series offers transgressive possibilities for re-imagining gendered relations and modernist American ideologies. At the same time, however, the series reifies mainstream commitments to heteronormative relationships. This television series is premised upon the novelty of a California valley girl who kicks ass, literally. The character of Buffy ruptures the action-adventure genre, in that a female is controlling the narrative and delivering the punches.

    • Word count: 1749
  8. The function of Education is to develop and reinforce social solidarity.

    More broadly, though, Durkheim was interested in the way that education could be used to provide French citizens the sort of shared, secular background that would be necessary to prevent anarchy in modern societies. It was to this end that he also proposed the formation of professional groups to serve as a source of solidarity for adults.Durkheim argued that education has many functions to reinforce social solidarity through history Learning about individuals who have done good things for the many makes an individual feel insignificant.

    • Word count: 1516
  9. Whait is society

    factors that need to be taken into account one is that there is 380 people on board which would consist of a mixture of men, women, children, nationalities, races, religions and languages for all 380 people there has to be a way to communicate so they can get food and water so they can survive. Another problem faced with a society stuck on a deserted island is how the various survival tasks and everyday work will be organised, for this there is going to be a need for a general leader of the group but when it comes to choosing

    • Word count: 1014
  10. Negative representation of women in females magazines

    Ferguson concluded that these values are seen as essentially 'feminine', which drives women to be obsessed with beauty and body image. This socialized young women into stereotyped values and roles of femininity as established in mainstream western society. Ferguson argued that women absorbed these magazine's messages directly and followed the cult of femininity they promoted. I plan to ask young women how much magazines influence their self-perceptions, appearance and behaviour and I will be interested to see if Ferguson's theory is correct, or whether my respondents are more critical of the 'cult of femininity'.

    • Word count: 1336
  11. Multiculturalism. Thesis Statement: Is the concept of multiculturalism a wise choice in modern day society?

    Or does it mean a world where all cultures thrive equally well and each is respected? Oddly enough, neither is often true. The true meaning of the word is not in its intentional use. But in the real world application of it. I personally believe multiculturalism is a good idea. It provides a wealth of cultural activities, foods, and also gives us other culture's different views of life. The first thing that someone may wish to know is what multiculturalism is exactly. According to Webster's Dictionary multiculturalism in a nutshell means of, relating to, reflecting, or adapted to diverse cultures.

    • Word count: 1306
  12. What Effect Did McCarthyism Have On 1950's Media In The United States?

    a private anti-communist venture. These organizations exercised their control over the media primarily through the practice of blacklisting. The HUAC published documents that contained lists of known communist sympathizers or supporters. Two of the most significant documents of this sort were Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in America and Counterattack: The Newsletter of Facts on Communism. Both of these documents had a great effect in the television, radio, and film industries. The television and radio media, by radical conservatives, was believed to be the chief transmission "belts" to bring Pro-Sovietism to the American people [1 Rosteck 16].

    • Word count: 1673
  13. Women are trapped by stereotypes they perpetuate themselves ......women in 3 short stories

    '" If you're that desperate, why don't you do what everyone else does?" And delicately, elegantly, she mimes the hook of a forefinger down a throat.' Julie clearly feels that she is so trapped she has to fit in, and follow the trend. This is shown by her saying '...do what everyone does'. The idea of a trap is echoed further on by Helen Dunmore's use of the word hook, which suggests being hooked, and you're stuck there; once you do it once, you'll repeat it over, like being addicted to a drug, only the throwing up is the drug and the cause is the job.

    • Word count: 1488
  14. Conceptions of crime are distorted by exposure to media coverage

    The media reinforces social myths by selective reporting, and thus presents a distorted view of reality. This could be leading to an increasingly misconstrued public view of certain crimes. The media is a very powerful influence on the way in which we behave and how we view the world, therefore it is important that it shows a realistic picture of what is taking place in our society, otherwise we will gain a false perception of aspects such as crime. Is the media really portraying crime as it truly is, or is it selectively reporting the most colourful events in order to secure audiences and therefore profit?

    • Word count: 1928
  15. Why do the mass media in a capitalist society allow no genuine diversity and can only produce dominant "ideological" representations of gender roles and relations

    Hence, the ideas that dominant ideology conveyed can be treated as natural and universal and thereby protected from the charge of being socially produced. The ideology of femininity and masculinity is one of the typical examples of the dominant ideology that is manifested, accepted and communicated in almost all of the societies. In this article, we particularly shed the light on the dominant ideological representations of gender roles and relations portrayed through mass media. Through revealing the images of men and women that are portrayed in the mass media, we hope to generated the dominant ideological representation of both male and female role and their relation, then examine how and why mass media is relating to such ideology.

    • Word count: 1812
  16. The main aim of my research is to find out how and in what ways the media influences young girls idea of the ideal body shape. I will present them with pictures of celebrities from magazines

    They used 374 girls ranging from 12-14. They were surveyed twice at different times, each being one year apart. The girls were given the same survey both times which contained questions regarding the amount of time they were exposed to fashion magazines and TV. They also included questions that would reveal symptoms of have eating disorders. After obtaining the results from these surveys they were able to com up with some possible conclusions. The results showed that the girls who had increased their exposure to fashion magazines from the first survey to the second had also increased signs of eating disorder symptoms, and visor versa.

    • Word count: 1119
  17. can the media be blamed for violence in the media today

    As these youths grow up they will develop a lifestyle revolving round violence such as the "gangsta" culture that has gripped many of America's underprivileged classes, they eventually end up as adults leading a life in criminality and violence. This can be achieved through no access to violent video games or movies. Younger children's violent behaviour is often attributed to the media but this is scientifically proven incorrect, in the pre teen years children are prone imitation especially the younger ones, children will imitate good behaviour as well as poor behaviour when they see it.

    • Word count: 1294
  18. The issue of media ownership is a complex one and therefore, I look to answer this question in exploring the importance of media ownership in society and the significance of such an issue. I shall do this by exploring the different major concerns

    It is something then, which is believed to have negative influences on both diversity of ownership and diversity of content. In addition to this, the high market domination found within high concentrations of media, means reducing competition, which is in effect reducing the all-important pluralism. However, it can be argued that larger organisations are in a better position to bring improvements to their produce and a greater range of output due to the fact that they are in a superior financial position than smaller ones.

    • Word count: 1541
  19. Adolescents- threat or asset to society? Discuss how media portrayal of young people today and in the past influences the concept of adolescence. This assessment will look at the various media that was used in the past and is used presently

    (Direct essays) In the 1960's there was a rebellion that swept across North America and Western Europe the term that is commonly used to refer to this is "counterculture". The counterculture included the sexual revolution which started in the late 1960's and early 1970's this change in sexual behaviour in young people took place mainly in the wealthy western countries but in particular the U.S.A. and the U.K. especially after the introduction of the birth control pill. (Jahsonic.com, 1996)

    • Word count: 1681
  20. How Do The Media Influence Understanding Of Nature and Effect of Crime?

    These channels are from all over the world and accessible all over the world being offered through the technological advances of satellite and cable television. (Bilton et al, 2002) These advances allow access and 24 hour viewing, on stories and reports such as crime. An example being the trial of Michael Jackson in 2005, this was screened all over the world from the United States of America as it happened. It goes without saying that forms of media such as newspapers are there to make money, hence the media industry is now dominated by large companies and organisations which have gradually been incorporated into highly centralised media conglomerates.

    • Word count: 1387
  21. Americanization, Globalization and Secularization

    Other explanations focus on changes internal to these national systems. An important distinction can also be made between mediacentric perspectives, for which changes in media systems are autonomous developments which then influence political and social systems, and those which see social and political changes as causally prior to media system change. Americanization and Globalization The phenomenon of homogenization in world media systems was first emphasized as a scholarly issue in the cultural imperialism literature of the 1960s and 1970s. Cultural imperialism theory was obviously a theory of external influence (e.g.

    • Word count: 1152
  22. To what extent is the mass media politically powerful? There are two main issues regarding media influence in politics

    Many researchers attribute enormous power to news media, claiming they have the ability to 'move and shake governments. Although there has been questioning since early conception of media outlets about influence media can assert over a mass audience, the question of weather the media is politically powerful has become a very hot topic since the early 1980's. This has been done by examining coverage of political matter through newspaper and television. There seems little doubt television is the publics main source of information for political matter in the UK (516 TV sets per 1000 people: 1998)

    • Word count: 1162
  23. Using Sociological evidence and concepts access the view that the mass media perpetuates stereotypes of gender

    They believe that the media is patriarchal (perpetuates male power and privilege). They also believe that serious change has to be made in society and mainly the media on the roles of woman in society and believe it is unfair for an image to be created about them, this image being chosen by men who try to reflect what all woman should correspond with. The male gaze is one concept which opposes the idea of radical feminist thinkers. The male gaze shows woman from the viewpoint of how men wish to see them.

    • Word count: 1654

    The woman leaning on the object signifies that the woman cannot live without this perfume. This also could signify that she is weak or is nothing without the perfume. Being full of laughter and looking innocent signifies that this is stereotypically feminine in terms of gender. Another example is how the woman is represented standing sideways, wearing a white dress and is not standing straight. Her not standing straight signifies how weak and feeble she is. Not being able to stand straight signifies that the woman is not complete. Wearing white dresses signifies that the woman is a virgin, this is stereotypically feminine.

    • Word count: 1146
  25. How do the Representations of Women Differ in Men's Magazines Compared to Women's Magazines

    The second study I will be looking at is Marjorie Ferguson (1983). Ferguson conducted a detailed content analysis and interview study of three of the largest selling women's magazines. She found that women's magazines convey a 'cult of femininity'. They instruct women in values and attitudes about being a woman. They tell women what to do and how to think about themselves, about their men, colleagues, children, what to wear how to act, and what to buy to be a femme fatale.

    • Word count: 1290

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the pluralists view on media ownership

    "In conclusion its fair to say that both Pluralism and Marxism share a great deal of similar interests as they both contain issues of power and distribution, but where Marxists believe that there are the bourgeoisies controlling the working classes, Pluralists argue that everyone has a say in the media and that power is equal amongst all of us. Furthermore with this in mind Pluralists believe that the media does not represent the view of one person but in fact represents the views of many and has a diversity of messages from different medias. But again there is a fault in this as in America it was reported that there should be over 2,500 different media sources yet in fact there are only 10, therefore proving that there are 10 major companies [bourgeoisies]owning a variety of smaller [proletariat]businesses. Time spent writing: 23 minutes Preparation time 10 minutes Stephen Hooper"

  • Ireland has a long history of censorship but this has been employed for different reasons in different periods. Compare the political and cultural motivations behind two different periods of censorship since 1922.

    "Conclusion This essay argues that the main motivation behind the 1929 censorship was the Church while the censorship during the Emergency was driven by political motivations. Other motivations such as nationalism and anti-communism were also responsible for censorship during these two periods, though to a lesser degree. It is obvious that the Church was not a protagonist during the Emergency as the Catholic Hierarchy were themselves censored. However, there were political motivations behind both periods of censorship and it is evident that the government's role became stronger as the church's role diminished."

  • Assess the view that the mass media perpetuates stereotypes of ethnic minorities

    "After I have looked at ball of the studies I have come to a conclusion of the question first asked, and I believe that stereotypes have been mainly carried on, but with some improvements. I believe that, now instead of just seeing negative stereotyping we are seeing more and more examples of positive stereotyping such as more positive/ high status roles in the media, we are seeing more black athletes and musicians and we also see more black presenters in the media. I strongly agree with Alvarado and his 4 categories. We still see these 4 categories in every day media; * Pitied- appears in the news * Humorous- appears in comedies (e.g. Bo-selcta, Kumar's at No42) * Dangerous- appears on the news (e.g. stories on terrorism and violence) * Exotic- appears in holiday shows. Although I also believe that improvement is needed amongst ethnic groups in the media."

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