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AS and A Level: Media
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In the case of films censorship is widely used as a marketing ploy. The largest market for cinemas is the 14-17 age group. Therefore by editing a possible 18 rated film down to a 15 it stands better chance of being big at the box office, thus making it more money. This is made more probable by the fact that in Britain cuts are agreed between the British Board of Film Classification and the distributor-not the writer or director! I understand that is not suitable for an 11 yr old to watch a film with a large sexual content but instead of cutting these scenes out to allow that age group to see it, it should be left to the appropriate age to view.
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It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. The mass-media audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. - 4. What are the different types of mass media? Electronic media and print media include: * Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television.
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'One Foot in the Grave', is another British comedy that uses many stereotypes such as old people. Showing the elderly, for example as nosy and grumpy. To demonstrate how British television comedies use stereotypes of people and places to create amusement this essay will analyse 'Little Britain' and 'Shameless'. It will focus on specific characters and situations to establish how stereotypes are used to create comedy. 'Little Britain' is a hilarious comedy based around and about Britain. The programme was originally on BBC Radio Four, but as it became successful it was transferred to BBC Three as a comedy sketch show, in October 2003.
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accounts and viewing it on TV they are accustomed to the view that males are aggressive characters whom women live in fear of. This approach of 'De-sensitisation' was adopted by Hilda Himmerlweit (168) as she suggested that prolonged exposure to programmes portraying violence may have a 'drip-drip' effect such that individuals are socialised in accepting this ideology. According to Tuchman (1978) women's issues are also marginalised as newspapers contain "women's pages" and he uses the concept 'Symbolic annihilation' to describe the way women in the media are absent, condemned or trivialised.
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Put simply, the words have very specific ideological assumptions of what is 'natural behaviour' for each sex. The portrayal of men and women in traditional roles is very prominent and also very contested in advertising. Characters, both male and female are constantly placed in roles, socially constructed to 'match' their gender. In other words, society has constructed (made) a set of 'truths' about what is the 'right' way for a man or a woman to behave. The media, of course, have had a hand in this construction, because of representation, which is an integral part of the encoding of any media text.
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During the course of looking at education, and ethnicity issues I became interested in how ethnic groups were portrayed in the media
However, there is an anticipated response, known as the preferred reading. Those who lack experience in cultural diversity are more likely to accept what is shown and therefore make generalisations from what they see to what they think. Therefore we make generalisations or stereotypical views of different members of society. This is my second concept. A stereotype is a conventional image of a person or group. Stereotypes generally conform to a pattern of dress or behaviour. A BBC news article entitled 'How entertainment changed: the media and multicultural Britain' addressing how the media has changed over time and gives statistics from a recent survey to the public, to their (ethnic minorities)
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It can be examined how different people receive media messages in different ways and why this is, via a method called 'reception analyses. This theory involves 3 different responses to media which Morley (1980) identifies as: Dominant (go along with), Oppositional (don't agree with views) or Negotiated (reinterpret views to fit their own opinions). An example of this effect is for instance a fight between 6 16-18 year old males outside a local pub. A dominant reaction to this would be that all youths are yobs and dangerous and an opposition reaction would be that it is always young people who get the blame for everything.
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To a great extent one can admit to this point, man is rational, and with use of his reason can be mature enough to hear and see explicit viewings such as pornography. In contrast to this, a liberal thinker will again say that even if a person does not wish to view the use of vulgar words on the television or radio, then the person has the choice to change the channel. This brings us to a core stance that liberals take, and that is of choice.
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The Frankfurt School theorised the possible effects of modern media, especially in response to German fascisms use of radio and film for propaganda purposes. The main strength of the effects model is that it was the first approach to try and analyse media effects systematically. It could also be argued that one of its strengths is that it attempted to isolate the effects of the media from other influences. The effects model started in the 1940's and is now considered very simplistic.
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These kinds of stereotypes are very simple and may go unnoticed by today's audiences but when examined closer they are more complex for example the common stereotype of the dumb blonde. The other term that I will be referring to throughout this essay in correlation to stereotypes is representation. This media term can refer to the way in which some media texts, re-present certain events, stories. They are always constructed and not always true, no matter how realistic or plausible the media seems such as the news.
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To understand the history of media it's important to see how others have studied it. The problem with the study of media history is that "media history tends not to illuminate the links between media development and wider trends in society because it is often narrowly focused on the content or organisation of the media" (Curran, J. 2002). The reason for this is that it is preoccupied with "institutional development" (Curran, J. 2002). Media has a huge effect on society, by not looking at the media's impact, you can't understand how and what the media is.
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Any sociological explanation of the influence of the mass media needs to take into account the social situation of the audience. Explain and evaluate the social situation expressed in this situation
Another theory that analyses the extent to which the mass media affects us is the Two Step Flow model. People make their views of the world through their own experiences, family and friends and also the media. Some people in the audience are called opinion leaders who are affected by the media and pass that on through the comments they make. These two theories are arguable in favour as they both suite the social situation of both audiences. But the one theory that favours more is the two step flow model as the mass media provides information and values which then flow to the 'opinion leaders' who shape the views then to the audience that act upon the information in a variety of ways.
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The top five applicant countries were Somalia, Zimbabwe, China, India and Pakistan. Also in 2002 the UK received most applications of asylum than any of the other western countries with 24%. It is these statistics and media coverage around the arrival of asylum seekers that heighten grwoing tensions and hostility towards asylum seekers. Media coverage of asylum seekers can be blamed for fuelling hostility towards the seekers therefore the media coverage of the new reforms and how they are presented to the general public will be analysed. David Blunkett's new measures to toughen up the asylum system were unveiled earlier this week.
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to audience demands v selective/uniform/decided from above Audience - Fragmented/selective/reactive & active v dependent/passive/mass/organized on a large scale/reactive Effects - numerous, inconsistent/unpredictability/often no effect v strong and confirmative of EST social order and status quo. What do the Pluralists say about the media generally? Pluralists argue that the public have the power to resist persuasion by the media; they have the ability to use the media rather than be used by them. The media don't just manipulate people's actions. Media are not all powerful Pluralists tend to support the idea that the media respond more to public demand than vice versa.
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Young adults, aged 16-20, are becoming Increasingly desensitized to violence in films - investigate.
My second context is the research conducted by Tim Newburn and Ann Hagell on media consumption and deviance. They interviewed 78 frequent young offenders (aged 12-18) and sought comparable information from a representative sample of 538 school children by means of questionnaires. There main findings where: ? Films which where at the time the focus of a moral panic had been watched by very few in either group ? Offenders lives are full of chaos and deprivation and the media are of less significance for them than their non offending peers ?
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"The British media's coverage of asylum seekers and refugees is characterised by stereotyping, exaggeration and inaccurate language." Discuss this statement, with reference to at least two newspaper articles.
For instance, it seemed that the bold "�16,000 in tax free handouts" title makes the readers assume that it was just for a single man's benefit. By assuming that it was just one man receiving the money, the readers get the impression it's a complete outrage as the article implies its such a huge amount of money. This is the general image portrayed in the British Media Coverage. Throughout the Daily Mail article, "�16,000 - That's what the average asylum seeker family gets a year in handouts (and it's all tax free!)"
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Examine the contribution of sociologists to understanding the ways in which the media portray disability and age.
reflects social reality. The biggest disability is bad practice attitudes and environment and not the physical conditions." This statement is suggesting that it is not the disabled peoples physical attributes that are the problem but rather the attitudes that are created towards them. People are brainwashed by the images that the media create and without experience the media is the only form of information that they are provided with regarding disability. Cumberbatch and Negrine also found that how people responded to the disabled depended on how much experience they had with them. Those who had more experience and understanding of the disabled were more likely to reject stereotypical representations presented to them.
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I had decided to write about the many negative aspects of my high school, and of course, back all of my points up with factual information. However, once the principal had read the editorial, he had questioned it and wanted me to change the subject of it. I disagreed and threatened to take legal action. In the end, I changed some portions of the article, but the general message stayed the same. As I stated, journalism is what I plan to do as a part of my life, and therefore I have learned a lot about censorship in school publications.
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To what extent to the news media reflect the "reality of crime"? Select and example and discuss in relation to deviancy amplification and moral panic.
an outcry and the aforementioned public figures have to take action such as incorporation into legislation and social policy, as can be seen by the introduction of the National Sex Offenders Register (Paedophile Register) in the late 1990s, in response to the growing concern and panic over child sex offences (Cohen 1972). The moral panic is not a new phenomenon. Every decade brings a new panic from the media in a range of topics, from the so called increase in youth crime (yobs and such), to drugs and sex, each considered a threat to the moral fibre of society at that particular time.
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What do researchers define as 'media violence'? What kind of assumptions do they make and social positions do they come from? How convincing is the evidence presented in terms of the effects of violence on audiences?
- to be exhibited only in licensed cinema clubs (films) or supplied in licensed sex shops (video) to persons of not less than 18 years of age. Research into the wider issue of the link between screen violence and violence in society reveals that even violent offenders are no more likely to have seen controversial films then their law-abiding peers, and such films are rarely mentioned as favourite viewing. But for an increasing number of people the mere possibility that there could be a link makes increased censorship a sensible precaution.
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How far do you agree with Tessa Perkins views on stereotypes? Illustrate your answer with examples from a range of different media texts.
In virtually every case, we are resorting to prejudice by ascribing characteristics about a person based on a stereotype. Quite often, we have stereotypes about who are members of groups with which we have not had firsthand contact. Stereotypes also evolve out of fear of persons from minority groups. For example; many people have the view of a person with a mental illness as someone who is violence prone, this conflicts with statistical data. Tessa Perkins in 1979 identified many shortcomings in the way that stereotyping is normally assumed to operate: * Stereotypes are not always negative * They are not always about minority groups or the less powerful * They can be held about ones own group *
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The aim of my questionnaire is to find out if there is a gender difference in people's attitudes to the media.
My sample size will be twenty people; ten male student and ten female students. My sample will be a random one; I will ask people to fill them in and who every wants to will be part of my sample. I chose students as my sample population as they are the nearest multi-cultural population to sample from. I chose a random sampling method because I could not rely on every student to be willing to fill out a questionnaire. Before I wrote up my final questionnaire I piloted a questionnaire to obtain the most suitable questionnaire for my study.
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Therefore the viewing of screened violence may actual defuse potentially aggressive behaviour in individuals. Also, Feshbach and Singer (1971) maintain that this cathartic effect may be more pronounced in working class viewers because their socialisation has resulted in their being less self-disciplined than the middle classes. Another model, which would agree with the view that the mass media creates violence amongst its audience, is the hypodermic syringe model. The sociologist Bandura created a situation where young children were shown a video of other children hitting a 'bobo doll' with a toy hammer.
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Christine feels pressured to be slim, just like all the models and stars she sees in magazines and movies. It is due to what today's generation see, hear and read, that makes them want to be anything but themselves. It can be said that two thirds of media influence has a negative impact, and contributes to social problems like violence, divorce, teen pregnancy and decline of family values. ("TV's" n.p.) Thus, today's domineering media consists of a melee of violence, implications and discrimination, which inflict erroneous impressions and misrepresentations upon society. Media literacy instruction can aid efforts to promote tolerance and combat violence.
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For example, if I was to say, describe a 1920's gangster, one might say: pinstripe three-piece suit, Italian-American accent, money laundering, black Bentley, Tommy Guns, white men (a very important point), Humphrey Bogart, etc... Nowadays, if I said to someone, describe a gangster I would get one of 2 descriptions. The first, the British gangster: Vinnie Jones, Cockney accent, Porshes, jewel thieves, top designer labels (suits etc...), sawn-off shotgun, warehouses (for "sorting people out") white cockney men (another important stereotype)
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