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AS and A Level: Media
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But was this really justified? Didn't the people have a right to know the real condition other parts of the country were in? What gives the government the right to release incorrect statistics? This is the type of thing being debated about today. To what extent should 'free speech' be limited? Would that even still count as 'free'? What would have happened if an English soldier had been allowed to write home about the true 'glory' of the war? His family would have obviously been horrified, and consequently told their friends and co-workers, warning them against sending their son to war.
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Marxist feminists state that the women's inferior position in society is serving the interests of capitalism. That the media reflects the situation because it's controlled by men (patriarchy).They also argue that pornography and women's bodies are used to make profits for the owners of the media. The problem of using feminism is that the three types overlap. Paul Trowler (1996) acknowledges that the boundaries between the three types of feminism are not always clear - cut. Yet all three types would agree that changes have occurred in the way that the media portray women. The British press represent women as sex symbols for men, through pornography.
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we take it in (being sponge like) and is very direct and has a very large impact on us. Sociologists believe with this effect that if we watch or read something we are likely to copy it or believe in the opinions that are given. There has been a lot of controversy with this effect as it makes people look easily influenced and that they rein act and believe everything that they see. A study was carried out after the court case of Nathan Martinez, who after watching a film 'Natural Born Killers' went out and murdered his sister and daughter.
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At the time she was praised for entertaining her slim figure so soon after pregnancy. However weeks later as speculation grew over her emaciated new look, she denied any talk of her eating disorder. However years later in her autobiography she confessed to having suffered from an eating disorder after the birth of her son Brooklyn. Teenagers view people on Television and admire the fa�ade and image which accompanies a star. With the unbalance of the hormones and the self consciousness which comes as pert of the teenage package tit is easy to see how teenagers are influenced.
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The ruling class, therefore, have a vested interest in ensuring its survival. Ideology is a set of ideas and beliefs that benefit the interests of certain groups. In this case, ideology tends to favour the status quo of the ruling class, because the ruling class own and therefore dominate the production and distribution of ideas and meanings. Ideologies role in this is to promote and disguise the ideas of class domination, so that it becomes accepted by the majority of people as being normal.
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Asylum in the UK (Home Office) top What people say Asylum seekers are responsible for higher council tax. The facts All the costs of looking after asylum seekers - including accommodation and subsistence costs - are met by central government, not through council tax. Asylum seekers have nothing to do with councils putting their taxes up. National Asylum Support Service top What people say They are all illegal immigrants. The facts Under the 1951 Convention on Refugees, which the UK has signed, anyone has the right to apply for asylum in the UK, and to stay here until a final decision on their application has been made.
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For instance if a child sees someone get hurt on television and finds it exciting then they would want to replicate this behaviour, to gain the reward of feeling the same emotion again. In 1960 Albert Bandura undertook a research project based on these ideas. He showed three groups of children a film which included scenes of violence towards a doll, in the first film the person committing the crime was punished, in the second the person was rewarded and in the third no punishment or reward took place.
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Becker looked at the process of the labelling theory and saw that deviance didn't start with an act itself, but an act that is somehow ambiguous (that doesn't really have a meaning to it) that leads to an act as deviant. The critical phase is when the label became public. I.e. when the authorities notice it and along with this come the stigmatisation process. Everyone now starts to evaluate the identity of the person who has been publicly labelled. Not only does this label become the master status of the individual, but also everyone re-evaluates that person's past events and behaviour in line with their master status.
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The president of the united states can only suggest to people what to do unless he turns America into a totalitarian state and that would loose the respect of the Americans, this isn't a problem for Murdock and bill gates because it is still seen as the people are been offered a choice even though this choice is virtually none existent. Topic Two: - The Content of the Mass Media: Making the News 1) In your own words explain what the 'hierarchy of access' means.
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Terminator 2 was chosen as it supports and challenges gender stereotypes. An example of this is a strong woman in the film is challenging however the strong macho bodyguard is not. Finally East is East as it challenges colour, nationality and gender stereotypes. The Muslim boy doesn't want to be of his religion anymore challenging strong Muslim family beliefs and the Muslim girl is a tomboy. Entertainment is not just about fun, it is also about power and money. Entertainment is America's highest earning export as it is the place where stars are seen to be born.
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Various parenting and feminist groups, as well as many consumers, are outraged by the sexist content of the game and have been calling for assorted actions to be taken, including pulling the game off the market. As I am sure many of you are aware, there were several incidences of mass sexual assault recently in New York City's Central Park. Approximately 50 women were assaulted by a mob of young males: Water was thrown on them, their clothing was pulled off, some were stripped entirely naked, and some were sexually touched.
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"The media reflects society; just as there is diversity in society, there is diversity in the media."
The quote I started with is one of the main fundamentals of pluralism. It recognizes that society is diverse and as such you would expect the media it incorporates to be as well. Pluralists often make the point that if people didn't want all of these different perspectives shown to us in the media we wouldn't pay for it. If this were the case, media that shows views and ideas that are unwanted by society would cause the businesses that produce to cease to exist.
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There are arguments for and against censorship. 'The ultimate form of censorship is death' George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright, 1911 AN EXAMPLE OF CENSORSHIP (political) This example of censorship took place in South Africa. For most of the twentieth century South Africa was ruled by a white government, even though most of the population was black. For most of this time the white government operated a system called apartheid (apartness), in which black people were considered to be second class citizens and were not given the same rights as whites.
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What do you understand by the phrase 'Trial by Media'? What are the implications of it becoming the norm in Britain?
is divided into hegemonic Marxist theory (dominated by elite ideology) versus the pluralist approach (public autonomy). Debate into audience reception of media output falls into several different schools of thought; reception analysis theory, deviancy amplification and moral panic, and the argument over whether the media encourages violence. This essay will examine these issues with reference to the implications of media control and effect with argument and evaluation. This essay also intends to prove that trial by media is the norm in Britain and the implications are that media is of hegemonic rule and the public are acquiescent of elitist ideology perpetuated through the media.
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It was first shown in 1989, and has been on non-stop ever since. I like it because it is sarcastic and views the world from a totally new angle. It is one of the most popular TV shows of all time, and the lead character, Homer Simpson, was recently voted the greatest TV character of all time. I think I consume this product because it is a good form of escape or diversion and it takes my mind off anything because it takes my primary attention.
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Further more it was found that it was likely the people involved were not aware they were making this judgement; it was determined that this stereotypical judgement had emerged through the development of film, television and magazines a conclusion which directly supports my hypothesis. The concept stereotype literally means 'set image' applied to people the word means an 'instant or fixed' picture of a person or group of people. Stereotypes are usually based on a mistaken or over simplified attitude, opinion or judgement, which the mass media has the ability to exploit.
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Marxist theory, and in particular its use in media analysis, is outmoded in a world where a capitalist consumer culture holds sway. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.
Ian Nicholls Page 2 Whether one agrees with Marx's political dimension or not, what is clear is that Marxism presents to us an extremely useful model in which to study the mass media. Though Marx was writing at a time when the main organs of mass media would've essentially meant newspapers and books, Marxist analysis can be applied to today's media: the mass media, a privatized means of production, is there to replicate capitalist ideology and to promote a 'false conciousness' amongst the working class.
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The German ideology is: 'The class, which has the means of material production, has control at the same time of the means of mental production... they regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age: thus their ideas are those of the ruling class' Some evidence, which would support this, would be from Lord Beaverbrook who said 'I run the paper purely for the purpose of propaganda, and with no other motive' As with all theories there are strengths and weaknesses for manipulative Marxists there are a few, but some of these strengths are it examines the power wielded by proprietors over the content of their media products.
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They say that women who buy the fashion magazines featuring thin models were as much to blame as the editors and advertisers. "It is a supply and demand thing - advertisers, magazines and agencies supply the image that consumers want to see. Statistics have repeatedly shown that if you stick a beautiful skinny girl on the cover of a magazine you sell more copies." A research carried out in 1999 studied 219 girls aged 13 to 17. The girls were given a 15-month subscription to a magazine and then compared with a similar group who were not allowed to read the magazine.
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The results show that people generally feel a lot more sympathetic, pitiful and patronizing towards disabled people. Sheridan in "A physical challenge for the media: The effects of portrayals of wheel chair users. He says that whilst there are many images of wheelchair users, they are not always accurate or helpful to the disabled community. To portray a wheel chair user in a film is so that they can be used as a dramatic and provocative tool. He states that it is possible to categorise portrayals into four main stereotypes, the pitiful handicapped, the bitter cripple, the inspirational hero and the set dresser.
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The last decade has seen much more relaxation from the BBFC, these points are to be highlighted in this discussion of film censorship today. Rather than banning all films with imagery deemed too hazardous for public viewing directors can be ordered to cut out scenes. The amount of cut film has dropped as society becomes more numbed to graphic sex, violence and drugs. In 1974 40% of all films were cut dropping to 5.4% in 1999 after examination of 4663 videos.
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The article written in 1950, entitled 'wife' immediately appeals to the femininism of the intended audience in both the frequent references to home, husband and looks, and in the eye-catching picture with the title overlaid onto it. In case the readers do not want to study the whole text, the content is summed up in the brief, bold word at the head of the article 'perfect'. Although it is an article implying the passive role of the wife, the very subtle background to the page is a far from stating this as it includes an image of socialising and of a busy lifestyle, even if it is housework.
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Moreover, OFCOM regulations further prevent any one company dominating the market. Furthermore, Pluralists argue that increasing concentration of media ownership is a positive notion. Such trends as vertical integration (1 company controls several stages of media production), horizontal integration (1 company controls diverse range of media) or synergy (integration of different media forms) reduce costs of producing media output, allowing the owners to take a risk of producing diverse content without fear to lose profit. However, Marxists argue such trends reflect monopolisation as one company controls the stages of production and output of the media, leading to less competition ? the opposite of what Pluralists argue.
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Outline and assess the view that the medias representation of ethnic minorities is becoming more positive.
Bell Hooks (1992), (a feminist), states that there has been a small change in the area of representation. When opening a book or magazine, turning on the television, watching a film or looking at photographs in public spaces, we are most likely to see images of black people reinforce and reinscribe white supremacy. However, Jhally and Lewis (1992) at the so-called ?enlightened racism? of successful ?black? TV programmes such as The Cosby Show ?which tells us nothing about the structures behind success or failure? and ?leaves white viewers to assume that black people who do not measure up to their television counterparts have only themselves to blame.
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Poverty Stereotypes: Fact or Fiction? Evidence of this use of labels can be found in the 2006 motion picture The Ron Clark Story.
Even when Clark is overcome with pneumonia, he continues to work with his class via videotaped lessons, hoping that he can raise their test scores to an acceptable level, or possibly even higher. In the end, Mr. Clark's class not only passes the state exams, but scores even higher than the school?s ?Honors? class. The Ron Clark Story is bursting with stereotypes touching upon poverty, racial tension, and inner-city education. After Clark arrives at the school he will eventually teach at, the principal introduces him to the ?Honors? class. The students in this class are portrayed as orderly and learned.
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