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AS and A Level: Media
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
Cultural pessimists argue new media is still run by and for the benefit of major corporations. JENKINS argues cross-media ownership benefits big media companies. The Internet is dominated by a small number of media companies like AOL (owned by Time Warner), which is US main Internet service provider. Most of the Internet is controlled by the big entertainment, press, telecommunications companies, making it easy for them to cross-promote products. CURRAN found that ¾ of most visited news websites are affiliated with the largest media corporations. Cultural pessimists thus criticise new media for still being based around consumption and profit-making.
However, he acknowledges that contraception is seen as female responsibility, while men are seen as pursuers of women. Representation of gay teenagers is extremely limited, although there are positive tendencies. More importantly, sexually active girls are represented as a problem and are usually a subject of moral panics, whereas boys are represented as naturally sexually active, which signifies existence of double standards in representations of sexuality. Homosexuality is increasingly visible in the media, signifying gradual shift in attitudes towards homosexuality, according to GAUNTLETT.
PM argue the society today is media-saturated. BAUDRILLARD argues the media messages dominate and distort the perception of the world. People live media-led virtual lives, spending time on social networks (eg. Twitter) or playing such video games as Second Life. Media-saturated society had created increasing uncertainty in the world by making it hard to discern reality from fantasy. BAUDRILLARD notes people are bombarded with the mass media daily. As a result, the media define our sense of reality and self-perception. To support, BAUMANN suggests people live in a liquid modernity, where we base our identity around consumption, and pick n mix identities.
Moreover, OFCOM regulations further prevent any one company dominating the market. Furthermore, Pluralists argue that increasing concentration of media ownership is a positive notion. Such trends as vertical integration (1 company controls several stages of media production), horizontal integration (1 company controls diverse range of media) or synergy (integration of different media forms) reduce costs of producing media output, allowing the owners to take a risk of producing diverse content without fear to lose profit. However, Marxists argue such trends reflect monopolisation as one company controls the stages of production and output of the media, leading to less competition ? the opposite of what Pluralists argue.
Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
- Do they use key words from the title or question?
- Do they answer the question directly?
- Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
Assess the pluralists view on media ownership
"In conclusion its fair to say that both Pluralism and Marxism share a great deal of similar interests as they both contain issues of power and distribution, but where Marxists believe that there are the bourgeoisies controlling the working classes, Pluralists argue that everyone has a say in the media and that power is equal amongst all of us. Furthermore with this in mind Pluralists believe that the media does not represent the view of one person but in fact represents the views of many and has a diversity of messages from different medias. But again there is a fault in this as in America it was reported that there should be over 2,500 different media sources yet in fact there are only 10, therefore proving that there are 10 major companies [bourgeoisies]owning a variety of smaller [proletariat]businesses.
Time spent writing: 23 minutes Preparation time 10 minutes
Ireland has a long history of censorship but this has been employed for different reasons in different periods. Compare the political and cultural motivations behind two different periods of censorship since 1922.
This essay argues that the main motivation behind the 1929 censorship was the Church while the censorship during the Emergency was driven by political motivations. Other motivations such as nationalism and anti-communism were also responsible for censorship during these two periods, though to a lesser degree. It is obvious that the Church was not a protagonist during the Emergency as the Catholic Hierarchy were themselves censored. However, there were political motivations behind both periods of censorship and it is evident that the government's role became stronger as the church's role diminished."
Assess the view that the mass media perpetuates stereotypes of ethnic minorities
"After I have looked at ball of the studies I have come to a conclusion of the question first asked, and I believe that stereotypes have been mainly carried on, but with some improvements. I believe that, now instead of just seeing negative stereotyping we are seeing more and more examples of positive stereotyping such as more positive/ high status roles in the media, we are seeing more black athletes and musicians and we also see more black presenters in the media.
I strongly agree with Alvarado and his 4 categories. We still see these 4 categories in every day media;
* Pitied- appears in the news
* Humorous- appears in comedies (e.g. Bo-selcta, Kumar's at No42)
* Dangerous- appears on the news (e.g. stories on terrorism and violence)
* Exotic- appears in holiday shows.
Although I also believe that improvement is needed amongst ethnic groups in the media."