• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Most sociologists do not believe there is any straight forward relationship between religion and social change.

Extracts from this document...


Is religion a force for social change? Most sociologists do not believe there is any straight forward relationship between religion and social change. Instead, they try to identify the particular factors that can influence the role of religious beliefs and institutions in specific social context. Sociologists argue that there are a number of factors that determine whether or not religion promotes social change. Max Weber is most famous for his work on this topic and combined with the Neo-Marxist view; argue that religion is a force for social change. However, it is the Marxist, Feminist and Functionalist theories that provide strong opposition of Weber and convincingly argue that religion is a force for social control. Many sociologists see religion as a means of providing answers to fundamental questions of society and these answers are sometimes called 'theodicies'. Max Weber, in 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism', identified one particular theodicy that helped to facilitate dramatic social change. Calvinists were a Protestant group who emerged in the 17th century and believed in predestination. They believed you destiny was fixed in advance, you were either damned or saved and nothing you or anyone could do would improve your chances of going to heaven. However, it was believed that any form of social activity was of religious significance; material success that rose from hard work and an ascetic life would demonstrate God's favour and, therefore, a place in heaven. ...read more.


showing that religion can act as a force against the consensus, if it so wishes. The religious, especially Calvinist, role in the development of capitalism is a primal example that religion is a force for social change and progress. Religion is shown to directly contribute to the development of the new ideology that is capitalism. The position and values of religious leader, especially with enough followers, in theory, are equipped to influence and encourage social change within their society. However, to a large extent religion is not a force for social change, but a force for social control. Both functionalist and traditional Marxist sociologists agree that religion is a conservative force. However, functionalists tend to view this as a positive thing, unlike Marxists who see this as a negative thing. Functionalisms main focus on the study of religion is religions contribution to social stability and value consensus in society. Durkheim argues that religion is rarely a matter of individual belief as most religions involve collective worship, ceremony and rituals, during which group solidarity is confirmed. The continual act of group worship and celebration through ritual and ceremony serves to create group identity, creating cohesion and solidarity. In maintaining social solidarity, religion acts as a conservative force; when it fails to perform this function, new ideas emerge that effectively become new religion. ...read more.


Mary Daley goes as far as to suggest that Christianity itself is a patriarchal myth. Women's bodies and sexuality have also been seen as dangerous by many religions. Women menstruate and give birth so are considered to have a greater capacity to pollute religious rituals. In addition, their presence may distract men from their more important roles involving worship. Bird points out that sexuality is an important issue in many religions. Roman Catholic priests are expected to be celibate, while some religions are still opposed to homosexuality. This reproduction of gender inequality and sexism with religious institutions directly hinders social change. Overall, Max Weber and Neo-Marxists argue that the values within most religion allow for social change through supported ideologies and the ability of religious leaders. Religious organisations have supported social movements and organisations that have resulted in social change. However, the socialisation of these religious values onto the individual means that religion being used to shape and control the individual. Therefore, as religion acts as a tool for the ruling class to justify the exploitation of the working class and encourages the working class to passively accept this position, religion is acting as a force for social control. Religion also promotes inequalities within gender and it reproduces traditional views of women, discouraging social change. It is clear that religion is used as a vital force for social control, whether this is seen as a positive thing or not is, in theory, irrelevant. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Free essay

    Is religion a conservative force or a force for social change?

    These include: 1. Rapid social change in society 2. Internal and external threats to the stability of society 3. A new, powerful leader needs to emerge to guide the people 4. A process of reaction 5. The use of sacred text to justify actions 6. New social boundaries for followers Once in power, the aim is to maintain traditional values and slow down social change.

  2. Assess the extent to which religion produces social change. Many sociologists such as functionalists ...

    so they believed that any form of social activity with religious significance and that material success that arose from hard work and an ascetic life would demonstrate gods favour and lead to a place in heaven. The ascetic protestants ethic reflected the origins of capitalism as it was the "the pursuit of profit and forever renewed profit".

  1. Assess the view that cults, sects and new age movement are fringe organisations that ...

    popularity and many people are turning away from traditional religions and following there idols in something new. Although Scientology is new it has become very popular among the young and older generations of society. In addition new religious movements have become very popular and are on the increase due to

  2. Demography topic revision notes. The study of populations and their characteristics is called ...

    50s is no longer working, while recent changes mean that women will soon have to wait until they are 65 to access the state pension (previously women's pensions began at 60, men's at 65). Others carry on working into their 70s.

  1. Evaluate the View that the Socialisation Process that Produces Gender Inequality Continues both In ...

    More traditional beliefs about male and female gender roles equate to a higher proportion of domestic labour being carried out by women. Ideas on gender roles seem to stem from early childhood and are reiterated in many different arenas thereafter.

  2. This essay will evaluate three groups within society; the Feminists, Postmodernists and the Marxists, ...

    The information collated from these devices are used to enforce workplace rules and regulations. A postmodern society involves a media-saturated consumer culture, individuals are free to pick their own lifestyles and identities (Browne, 2008). Individuals can also be observed with invasive monitoring and disciplining of those accessing public services, such

  1. Biological and Social Constructionist explanations of Gender development

    have higher levels of aggression than other girls, prefer male toys and show superior ability in spatial tasks. However, studies of aggression in girls with CAH have so far produced inconsistent results. Hines (2004) reports a number of studies comparing aggression levels between CAH girls, CAH males and controls using various measures of aggression.

  2. Religion can be both a conservative force and an initiator of social change to ...

    Religion can develop to support and guide challenges to ruling class (Hegemony) simply because the church is not directly under control of ruling class. For Example, Latin America; Priests and religious leaders would spend time with the Poor, convincing them to convert to Christianity, promising them with help, shelter and end of oppression.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work