To what extent does the Media affect body image in teens and their perception of beauty?
by mollymoo1234 (student)
To what extent does the Media affect body image in teens and their perception of beauty? There is no question that the Media has a massive impact on how we perceive ourselves, particularly when it comes to our beauty. From my own experience, I have questioned my own body due to articles in magazines promoting a slimmer body type to various audiences. We shape our opinions through what the Media tells us is right and wrong. For instance, women and young girls are judged highly on their weight and appearance where as men are judged more on their masculinity and muscularity. As the Media is a massive topic, I will focus on looking at magazines, in particular adverts, and how they portray beauty and how we then observe the Medias idea of ‘perfection’. I will also be looking at the effects of exposure to these magazines and adverts to teenagers; one particular focus will be the influences of the Media on Anorexia. “Low self-esteem contributes to a distorted body image, and the distorted body image can't be fully corrected until self-esteem issues are reconciled.” If we don’t address the problem (the problem being the Media labelling a certain body type as perfect) then the issue of low self-esteem in women is never going to stop.Over 90% of people diagnosed with eating disorders are adolescent or young women, so why do young women and adolescents feel the need to go to these drastic measures to stay skinny? While the Media is not the only factor that can be contributed to the rise in Anorexia, it is a significant aspect. It’s no surprise that teenagers are obsessed with thinness and weight loss because of the way Media promotes a skinny figure to women through the constant images of celebrities’ bodies and also articles that talk about bettering our lives through our appearance. The Media promotes a skinny figure through constant articles in magazines on celebrities’ figures, for example, Star magazine has shown the same front cover advertising “45 best & worst beach bodies” seven times. I believe that this is going to contribute to women having a negative body image as they constantly compare themselves to the celebrities in these magazines and deciding whether they have an “acceptable figure” due to the ones advertised as the “best”. Personally, I think it’s the mix of women’s obsession with celebrities and a low self-esteem that creates a negative body image. Approximately one in every one hundred teenage girls may develop an Eating Disorder. Body dissatisfaction is a reoccurring motif especially in women as they are constantly exposed to celebrities and advertisements from such a young age.I had to create a presentation to my peers based on my topic question earlier this year. I decided that I wanted to get real opinions on whether the content of these magazines were suitable for the magazines target audience. I gave them four popular girl magazines (Bliss, Mizz, Shout and Look), which girls ranging from 10-17+ were reading. I asked them to order the magazines from the lowest target audience to the highest, basing the order solely on the content of the magazines. Surprisingly, my peers put the magazines in the right order.However, they were still shocked by the audiences that these magazines were targeted at because the content of these magazines was not appropriate for children of that age.Bliss magazine, is initially targeted at girls aged 13-17; the class all said that “It was targeted at 16+ because of the ‘Stone’s style solutions’ that promote platform heels which aren’t appropriate for girls of 13 years.” Furthermore, Bliss magazine shows an article on ‘Pamper perfect’ showing young girls how to get the A-list look ‘without the A-list price tag.’ My peers decided that Bliss magazine is subtlety influencing young girls on how they can better themselves where as Look magazine, which is targeted at girls from 16-34; manipulate girls into changing their body to better themselves. This shows the diversity between magazines that are targeted at girls below 16 and those targeted at girls above 16. In both Bliss and Look magazine, they use a very slim model to advertise their clothes. Even though Bliss uses a teenage model and Look uses an adult, they both use a particular frame of woman. Mizz magazines’ target audience is from 10-14 years. Mizz’ articles, in my opinion, are suitable for the
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target audience because they don’t focus on celebrity lifestyle and focusing on a negative body image. Shout magazines’ seems to focus on females between 10-15 years.However, Shout magazine, targeted at females between the ages of 11-14, shows little articles involving models and looks more at celebrities and real life stories.As we live in a society, which is more obsessed with how we look, rather than what we do, it’s no wonder that women are both mentally and physically abused by the Media.This is a gut feeling of mine based on the content of magazines. From my own opinion, I see more articles congratulating celebrities on losing weight rather than their success in their career.How the Media advertises products and articles in magazines have a bigger affect on us than we initially think. On average whilst watching television, women come across around 400 to 600 adverts a day. In light of this, if in only 50% of the adverts we see thin models, then even this could have a negative affect on how we perceive our own body and also how we compare it to what the Media label as “perfect” which is usually undernourished models. By repetitively using the same figure of model, this will also stay in the sub-conscious mind of the audience. This technique of advertising is called subliminal messaging. When subliminal messages are first seen or heard, we are unable to identify what it is. In fact they may be ignored by the conscious brain and be beyond the level of conscious perception. A new study by Prof. Naomi Mandel, as sited in CBS News, has shown companies that feature normal size women, better known, as “plus-size” are less effective than those that use thin models. It also found out that overweight and normal-weight females have a lower self-esteem after seeing “plus-size” models in advertisements. I found these results quite interesting as I presumed that women who saw “plus-size” models would make them have a higher self-esteem because they have a similar body to the models in the advertisement. Additionally Jeremy Kees, a professor at Villanova University, believes that women expect to see beautiful women in advertisements, even if it makes them feel worse about themselves.In one of his studies, Kees found that even though the women felt bad about themselves after looking at the adverts, they evaluated that the brands were selling higher, and those ads which used average size models, their brands sales has decreased.Although, another source reported that women have lower levels of weight concerns after exposure to average and overweight models than after the exposure to ultra thin and even no models. This could be because women would feel accepted by society for their body size because the Media believes its okay. In my eyes, the Media always promote a very slim figure. Furthermore, a social psychologist’s research has suggested that average sized models are just as effective as thin models. But what do the public really want to see? Karl Langerfield, Head Designer of the Fashion house Chanel, said that: “the world of fashion was all to do ‘with dreams and illusions, and no one wants to see round women'.” After reading both these studies, I decided to create an experiment that was heavily influenced by the experiments that the University of Sussex had conducted on self-discrepancy. One of these experiments was to see if advertisements that use models are more effective than those that don’t use any model. Also, I wanted to see if Prof. Naomi Mandel has the correct theory that advertisements are less effective with ones that use “plus-size” models or ultra-thin models. Additionally, the experiment that claims women have lower levels of weight concern after exposure to average models wasn’t conducted on teenagers and I wanted to see if teenagers find adverts with “plus-size” models more or less effective than ultra-thin models.The other experiment that was conducted on children between 5 and 6 years was to see if a specific body image does have an affect on how we perceive ourselves. They had three separate groups of girls who were all told the same story however, one group had images of Barbie, the ultra-thin doll; one group had images of Emme, the average-size doll and one group had no dolls included. Each girl was then told to fill out a self-discrepancy chart and highlighted the body they thought they had compared to the body they would like to have.The results from this showed that the discrepancy was higher in those that saw Barbie compared to the other doll. This shows a link to what heavily influences girls between what they see and their sub-conscious mind.The main objective for my experiment was to see whether adverts that use skinny models are more effective on us as a public, than those that don’t use any type of model and also to explore into the world of subliminal messaging and how it plays on the sub-conscious mind. I wanted to see if this type of advertising really does work. I carried out this experiment twice because I wanted to make sure I had clear and thorough results. I used a group of twenty students between the ages of 14 and 16 of which ten boys and ten were girls. The boys were given adverts targeted at males and the girls were given adverts targeted at females. Half of each gender was given adverts that feature models of the same sex and the other half were given adverts that featured only the products and no models. Each person that had the same booklet was all sat on a table and they would discuss the adverts. As I was walking around, I was listening to what they were asking each other about the adverts shown to them: “What is your opinion of the advert? What is the focal point for the advert? Whom is this advert targeted at?”I was surprised by the results I got from also the comments I got from both genders. All the girls that had models advertising the perfume in their adverts wanted to lose weight, and out of the 20 girls that took part, 90% overall wanted to lose weight. A lot of the girls described the models as “plain” and that “the majority of the models were skinny and blonde.” This was a popular opinion with all the girls and I wondered why even though they thought the models looked plain and they weren’t envious of the models, why did all the girls want to lose weight? One girl gave an interesting point that even though Emporio Armani used Beyoncé Knowles, who is African-American, to advertise their products; they thought that it was unclear of her skin colour and that they might have used a black and white image so that it would open up to a wider audience. This links back to a previous point that companies always advertise a certain frame of a model to women because this is what they believe as “perfect.”Even though all the girls who didn’t have the models in their adverts had a lower discrepancy, this could be because they might have recognized the adverts from seeing them before or they could genuinely have a low self-esteem.However, what the University of Sussex had discovered was that average size models had no negative affect on body image with women.Even though I had done this experiment on boys too, I decided not to use their results as I felt they didn’t contribute to any of my product. Also, I wanted to focus on teenage girls and their perception of beauty.I was please with how the experiment was carried out and found it was a success with all the participants and the results I received were clear and reliable. However, if I was to carry this experiment out again, then I would do it with adults and also primary school children so then I could compare each set of results with one another and also I would to show how our opinions differ as we mature and also, to show who is more affected by the Medias constant advertise of celebrities and particularly the “size-0” figure. Also, I wish that I had shown them adverts that used “plus-size” models to see which one gave them a lower self-discrepancy as this would have been more relevant to the objective of my product.When I first started this topic, I began to realise how much pressure young girls are under to look good through the articles in magazines and the constant need to look at celebrities. After this, I decided that I wanted to find out if young girls and boys are actually affected by this pressure or if it is just my opinion. I created a questionnaire and gave it to secondary pupils between the ages of 11-16. I wanted to keep the questionnaires anonymous because I know these people and it could have influenced the way I interpret their answers. I don’t regret making these questionnaires however I was hoping for more detailed answers. I printed out 100 questionnaires and gave 10 to 10 tutors in my college. I wanted to give them out in tutor because they would have at least half an hour to fill out my questionnaires so they would be able to go into great detail and really think about their answers. However, I had difficulty with my questionnaires and the public doing them. Firstly, I had to print them in black and white to save ink at school; however the images I used were not clear enough in black and white so this could have affected my results. Secondly, when I received the questionnaires, there was minimal detail and also the majority of the participants were pretending to be funny in their questionnaires and didn’t provide the evidence I needed so they were invalid. On the other hand, there were questionnaires that I could use that gave detailed answers. 21% of all the results think the Media are the main cause of having a certain figure however 27% thought their friends pressured them to fit in with everyone else. However, their friends must get this idea of what is acceptable from somewhere. Could this be from the Media? In my appendix, I have included some tables, which include the results from the questionnaires I made. I found the graphs difficult to make, as I wasn’t sure how to break down the categories. Did I do it by year or by gender? The graphs were done on a trial and error basis however I felt like they were done in a correctly in the end. Another study found that 27% of the girls that they carried an experiment out on that felt the Media pressure them to have a perfect body. Even though this shows that other girls in other studies are affected by the Media, it’s not so reliable in my essay as I’m not sure of how many girls were asked, how old they were or where in the world this experiment was carried out. Eating disorders like Anorexia are caused by a physiological disorder within a person and how they view their own body. The sufferer believes that they are overweight so they take extreme actions like dieting, fasting and even starving themselves just so they feel what they believe to be ‘beautiful.’ There are many reports; mostly around the time of London Fashion Week that fashion models have used this technique. However, it’s not only women in the fashion world who suffer with this disorder, other professions like ballet dancers and athletes show a high number of people who have/had Anorexia. Personality plays a big part in eating disorders. People who suffer with Anorexia Nervosa usually are perfectionists and overachievers’. People who suffer from Anorexia work relentlessly towards a thinner body because they feel that this will promise them beauty, success and happiness. The victims usually want to feel accepted by society however they do not feel valued by others. Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa are most common in white people in western societies. This shows a direct link to how our society looks at behaviours and expectations of the public compared to eating disorders. Not only in the Western hemisphere is there a link towards the ethnicity of people with eating disorders, a study in Fiji showed a sudden increase in eating disorders among young women since the arrival of television in 1995, (Fearn, 1999). This also shows a strong link between the social and cultural factors. I have seen that there is a number of ways that that the Media can alter teenage girls’ perception of beauty. As I have found, magazines use the same frame of model to promote clothing and will openly slate people’s bodies if they feel they are not “good enough.” Also, magazines will always show articles on how girls and women can change or correct themselves so that they are up to a standard that the Media thinks is acceptable. As humans, it has been known that we always want what we can’ have but is this just apart of our human nature? of this will make girls doubt their own body, even though I found from my own research that girls are not envious of the models in advertisements, they still wanted to lose weight and illustrated they were unhappy with themselves. This was proven through my questionnaires as 79% of the girls admitted to not being happy with their body. Although we as a public may claim to want to see women of a normal size modelling products aimed at us, fashion designers that are in charge decide what we are shown, and this could be where the problem is. Referring back to a point that Karl Langerfield, he claims that “the world of fashion was all to do ‘with dreams and illusions, and no one wants to see round women'”. Even though we may openly say that we want to see designers use curvier bodies to promote their range of clothing or do we as a public secretly see want to see a skinnier frame of model? This links in with a point made earlier about my experiments. Even though all the girls admitted they weren’t jealous of the girls frame, they still wanted a lower discrepancy. So are fashion designers after all giving the public what they can’t admit to wanting? Also, Diane Von Furstenberg claimed that “To be a model, you have to be skinny.”In conclusion, I have found that it’s clear that there are so many different opinions and that it’s hard to identify the general overview to this question without finding exceptions. I feel positive that I have found that the Media can affect teenagers and their perception of beauty but that it varies between person to person as my questionnaires have shown. However, if we are aware of the potential effects, then in theory, we can find solutions to these issues; surely that is the most important lesson we can take away from this? http://scientopia.org/blogs/scicurious/2011/04/25/magazines-media-and-teen-body-image/ as accessed 13/01/2012 http://www.eatingdisordershelpguide.com/self-esteem.html as accessed 28/02/2012 http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/psychology/psychological-abnormality/revise-it/eating-disorders as accessed 3/11/2011 http://www.anorexia-reflections.com/causes-of-anorexia.html as accessed 24/11/2011  See figures 1 and 2 in the appendix  http://www.latestbooks.org/entry/star-mag-reveals-the-best-and-the-worst-celebrity-bodies/ as accessed 15/03/2012  Refer to figures 3 – 9 in the appendix http://www.something-fishy.org/cultural/themedia.php as accessed 28/11/2011  Refer to figure 10 in the appendix  http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/news/900146/ as accessed 11/11/2011  Refer to figure11 in the appendix  Refer to figure 12 in the appendix  Refer to figure 13 in the appendix  http://www.getmemedia.com/ideas/reach-young-women-with-glossy-weekly-fashion-and-celeb-mag-look/ipc-media-ltd.html?srch=1&m=8&dg=2&da=6&pg=1&df=&dt=&ay=0&useor=&kw as accessed 29/03/2012  Refer to figures 14 and 15 in the appendix  Refer to figure 16 in the appendix  http://www.getmemedia.com/ideas/shout-the-award-winning-magazine-for-teenage-girls-aged-11-14/dc-thomson.html as accessed 27/03/2012  http://www.getmemedia.com/ideas/target-the-teenage-beauty-market-in-shout-magazine/dc-thomson.html as accessed 27/03/2012 Dittrich, L. “About-Face facts on the MEDIA” as sited in: http://www.healthyplace.com/eating-disorders/articles/eating-disorders-body-image-and-advertising/as accessed 20/02/2012  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-subliminal-messages.htm as assessed 13/03/2012 http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505123_162-42744547/why-fashion-advertisers-should-ignore-women-who-complain-about-skinny-models/ as accessed 13/02/2012  http://www2.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/reallife/story.html?id=ca7ae3a5-04b6-4a52-a2fd-4daae6536d74 as accessed 24/03/2012 http://hls.uwe.ac.uk/research/Data/Sites/1/docs/CAR/Halliwell%20-%20Impact%20of%20Advertisements.pdf as accessed 17/11/2011  http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2006/11/15/thin-models.html as accessed 12/12/2011  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Lagerfeld as accessed 29/03/2012  http://www.marieclaire.co.uk/news/health/400998/karl-lagerfeld-says-people-prefer-skinny-models.html as accessed 11/03/2012  Refer to figure 17 in the appendix  http://www.marieclaire.co.uk/news/health/400998/karl-lagerfeld-says-people-prefer-skinny-models.html as accessed 11/03/2012 Ibid as accessed 17/11/2011  Refer to figure 18-20 in the appendix  Refer to figures 21 and 22 in the appendix  “How to love the way you look,” Teen People, October 1999 as sited in: http://www.healthyplace.com/eating-disorders/articles/eating-disorders-body-image-and-advertising/ as accessed 12/02/2012 http://www.something-fishy.org/isf/mentalhealth.php as accessed 3/11/2011 http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/psychology/psychological-abnormality/revise-it/causes-of-eating-disorders as accessed 3/11/2011 Ibid as accessed 3/11/2011  http://www.mindlab.org/images/d/DOC828.pdf as accessed 22/03/2012 Ibid as accessed 3/11/2011 Ibid as accessed 3/11/2011  http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20062689,00.html as accessed 13/03/2012