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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Comparison Of Marxist And Functionalist Views On Education

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    Functionalists also take into account that many societies come from a variety of national and cultural backgrounds. The functionalist view also says that western society based schools give awards on the basis of the individual ability, talent effort etc. The Marxist view on the other hand states that the students are awarded on their ability to conform as part of the 'hidden curriculum'. What is referred to, as the 'hidden curriculum' is the teaching of children in schools to conform to rules, and to learn to accept authority and the need for punctuality.

    • Word count: 1252
  2. Obesity is not the individual's problem. The spark in obesity rates means that many people are forced into becoming obese.

    If the average diet of an individual in the U.S. could be examined then anyone could see, as Martin Binks states, "calorie-dense foods are far more readily available than ever before" (Motluk 563). Kids and adults alike devour far too much 'junk food', and it is not their fault because corporations make it possible to only see high calorie foods wherever an individual goes. Corporations place the food in front of the people's eyes and they convince them to buy it too! Whenever a child sees a McDonald's, Burger King, Pizza Hut, etc.

    • Word count: 1172
  3. Obesity in todays Society

    Some factors of obesity can be a genetic predisposition, family history or a wide range of biological differences. Metabolic rate is a life sustaining chemical activity; the ongoing interactions taking place in the living organism that provide the energy and the nutrients needed to sustain life. What people inherit is passed onto them in their genes. Genes control physical makeup. Also, genes control a whole set of chemicals in people's brain which controls their eating behavior. Parents are the most effective way to fight obesity. In the home, children are taught how to make eating choices. When parents allow their children to eat at fast food establishments, they cannot blame fast food for being unhealthy.

    • Word count: 1967
  4. Unemployment

    During the peak industrious times, car makers such as Ford and GM made full use of manual labour in all their car factories. Employees stood alongside a conveyer belt performing their designated task. However, as technology progressed so did the car production method. Ford and GM both implemented robotics into their method of production as a result the need for unskilled workers vanished due to the simple fact it was more cost effective to use machinery to manufacture cars and only highly skilled engineers will be required to maintain the machinery.

    • Word count: 1774
  5. Women and Football

    Rather then reporting on the quality of football, newspapers found more entertainment in the designer flauntings of Mrs. Beckham et al. After being dumped out of the competition in the quarter finals by Portugal, many front pages went as far as to blame the girls on tour rather than the boys. Some may argue that this lack of priority was a fault of not just the England players and their glamorous wives, but also the media themselves. Either way the WAG phenomenon is one that only this country seems to be obsessed with (it goes hand in hand with celebrity culture, spear headed by gossip magazines and tabloids, where simply being on reality TV makes you a bona fide 'celebrity').

    • Word count: 1712
  6. Group Work and Team building

    I intend to examine my group throughout its task using Tuckman's 'Theory of group processes' (1965). The first stage of Tuckman's theory is categorised as the forming stage. This is essentially an anxious period where members worry how they are perceived and what their role in within the group is. Members are careful to avoic conflict and to look to other members for approval or leadership. In the first term of my yoga class I personally felt a little anxious and overwhelmed. I decided to join the group for the opportunity to learn something new and to take in the benefits of yoga - including relaxation and flexibility.

    • Word count: 1108
  7. Assess the strengths and limitations of participant observation for the study of labelling in schools

    Firstly, strength of participant observation is that results are usually valid. Rather than getting a participant to fill out a questionnaire when there is no real way of telling if they are giving accurate answers, participant observation can however provide high amounts of qualitative data and the researcher can put his findings into great detail. By observing ethnic minorities and teacher/student interaction towards them, the sociologist can gain understanding of their viewpoints and actions. Studies that take place in a natural setting e.g. a classroom raise validity as the students are more likely to behave in their normal manner, rather than if they were taken into a lab, they may react and treat ethnic minorities differently to conform to social accepted views.

    • Word count: 1223
  8. Free essay

    Access sociological explanations of the patterns of women's physical illness and access to healthcare.

    But that argument is easily disputed as in recent years the gap is closing as modern trends suggest that it is no longer the case. The biological argues that women live longer because of a difference in hormones to men. The fact that women have more oestrogen than men is supposedly linked to their lower rates of such fatal illnesses such as heart disease. Recent trends, however, easily rebuttal that as incidents of death from such fatal illnesses like heart disease for men and women are becoming increasingly parallel, regardless of any difference in gender related genetics.

    • Word count: 1089

    By this I mean don't tell jokes that will offend them make sure it is appropriate. In order to have an efficient conversation/ introduction you need to show a good understanding of speaking and listening skills. This will allow the patients to feel confident enough to talk freely and ask any questions and get a genuine answer. It will form trust between the hospital staff and the patient, whom will then feel confident and secure enough to be able to make their own decisions and to be respected in return; when this happens you know that you have built a relationship.

    • Word count: 1863
  10. Examine the reasons why females tend to achieve more than males in the education system

    Meaning that not many females pick certain subjects - therefore limiting the subjects that can do. By the subjects being limited it doesn't allow females to pick subjects they either want to do or will achieve well in due to an overwhelming number of male students in the classes. Because of this it has been shown that males generally tend to do better at A-level than females. But, if there was a step towards de-genderising subjects, there would be more females achieving higher then the males.

    • Word count: 1137
  11. study I am reviewing is "Are NHS patients becoming increasingly consumerist?".

    The researcher used a questionnaire in the study to establish the conclusions. This information collected is Primary data. The researcher carried out this questionnaire on a small scale. Only asking 15 people to complete them, and all at their local hospital. It was compiled of a few simple questions all aiming towards, Did patients believe they should be receiving a better service? Therefore "Are NHS patients becoming increasingly consumerist?". As the researcher states in the report this was a quick and cheap option as they were on a limited time scale.

    • Word count: 1968
  12. Compare and Contrast functionalist and marxist views on religion

    So society is the real object of religious worship. From this, the worship of society strengthens shared values and beliefs and by defining them as sacred religion provides them with greater power to direct human actions. Collective worship through rituals also reinforces values and beliefs, as it is a shared expression of these. Thus reinforcing the collective conscience. Malinowski also touches on the topic of shared expression and reinforcing values and beliefs. However Durkheim does ignore the darker side of society in the conflicting values and physical conflict between its members.

    • Word count: 1502
  13. Assess the claim that the nuclear family as a dominant form of family structure has been replaced by a wide variety of types of families

    Both perspectives will be examined in this assignment. In 1982, RN & R Rapoport [The Rapoport's] conducted a study known as 'Families in Britain'. It identified five different types of family diversity in contemporary Britain including life cycle diversity, class diversity, cultural diversity, cohort diversity and organisational diversity. Firstly, life cycle diversity refers to the difference in family life which occur as the result of the life cycle, for instance a family with teenagers and older parents is very different to families with an 'empty nest'.

    • Word count: 1226
  14. Participant Observation Exercise

    He was slightly on the outside and had to make a conscious effort to be more involved, this made him feel vulnerable as he was making more of an effort that Dave and Tony, therefore to help combat the vulnerability he employed a classic defensive posture. Of course, he may indeed have simply been cold or had a stomach ache, but the atmosphere was fairly warm and he had not complained of a stomach ache. The posture could be down to a lack of confidence and a fear of being judged by the people around him, he doesn't want to appear to others as though he is out of the conversation, he is very much conscious of what others think.

    • Word count: 1570
  15. The recent rise in support for NRMS comes mainly from an increased desire to reject mainstream religious values. Evaluate this claim

    World-rejecting groups are often millenarian - expecting divine intervention to change the world. For example, The Moonies reject the world as evil, and have strong moral rules such as no smoking or drinking. Over recent years, the general public has viewed world-rejecting groups negatively. This is largely because of mass suicides that have taken place. For example, the mass suicide of Jim Jones's people's temple in Guyana 1987. Wallis sees World-rejecting NRM groups as sects. He also argues that they have "an authoritative locus for the attribution of heresy" and are hostile to the state and non-members.

    • Word count: 1906
  16. Marxist and functionalist perspective on education

    The education system helps to generate social solidarity by conveying society's shared beliefs and values from one generation to the next, for example, the teaching of history provides social continuity. Functionalists also believe that schools act as 'society in miniature' preparing individuals for life in the wider society, for example in school pupils are encouraged to work as a team this would help in the wider society since we live in a democracy. Durkheim sensed that social rules should be enforced in schools (school rules)

    • Word count: 1430
  17. Feminist Theory Studies in America

    (Business and Professional Women/USA) Each year the National Committee on Pay Equity (NCPE) organizes the national observance of Equal Pay Day to raise awareness about unfair pay in America. This year it was observed on Tuesday, April 16, 2002. Tuesday is symbolic of the point into the new week that a woman must work in order to earn the wages paid to a man in the previous week. (National Committee on Pay Equity) The statistical data in the Table 1-4 below reflects the harsh reality of the unfairness of earned income for women.

    • Word count: 1361
  18. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain in 1914 at the outbreak of World War 1

    They often had to work in very bad conditions and they slept in the attics of houses usually sharing with other servants in cold, cramped rooms. Although servants who lived in their own homes were better paid, the pay was still low. This particular job attracted young women because the school leaving age during that period was only twelve. Girls and sometimes boys went into domestic service as soon as they were legally old enough to leave school. They were forced to do this because their family needed the money to feed the younger children, as families were usually large.

    • Word count: 1880
  19. Examine the ways in which educational policies may reproduce and justify social class inequalities

    Teachers evaluate pupils in terms of an ideal student by looking at appearance, personality, speech and social class. It was also found that students from higher classes were put into top bands at schools as they were more highly regarded by teachers. This is simply reproducing the Marxist ideology of education creating further social divides and limiting the opportunities of lower class students when they leave education and enter the workforce, preventing them from moving up the social ladder of stratification. Although labelling is not an actual educational policy it is an indirect result of such policies, particularly the Education Act introduced by the Government in 1944.

    • Word count: 1328
  20. Describe the employment opportunities of woman in Britain in 1914 at the out break of the war

    Enid Starkie, writing in 1941, remembers her childhood at the turn of the century (from A Lady's Child). "My father seemed to me to be a very important person ... In my mother's opinion everything he did was right ... She considered it right that the life of a wife, that the life of ail women in the household, should revolve around its male head. Nurse, the maids and even Lizzie the cook, accepted this attitude without question." The upper class and the middle class women were better educated, but it was considered scandalous for wealthy women to work since they did not need to earn a living.

    • Word count: 1019
  21. Compare and contrast Marxists, Feminist, Functionalists, Third Way and New Right views of the welfare state

    social security system providing income security from the "cradle to the grave"(Beveridge 1942), through a range of benefitsfrom child allowances to old age pensions. The philosophy behind the Beveridge reforms was strongly influenced by the experience of the war years, when state planning and the allocation of resources through rationing of food and clothing provided. Feminists argue that the welfare state is a sexist institution that is biased against women and claim that there are a number of factors that cause this.

    • Word count: 1019
  22. To what extent had the role and status of women in society improve by 1900?

    This was a huge step in improving the quality of life for many young women. It enabled them to apply for better paid jobs which require education instead of labour, as well as a huge expansion in teaching enabling women to enter a new profession. Although this was a vast improvement girls were still only taught the bare minimum in reading and writing as they concentrated far more on a domestic curriculum including sewing and cooking, whilst there male classmates were taught far more academic subjects such as science.

    • Word count: 1685
  23. Critically examine the view that society is becoming Mcdonalized using relevant examples to illustrate your argument Many areas of society, such as shopping and travel, have changed dramatically in their structure

    Finally the control factor, that is "Control over both employees and customers because, " [people are] the great source of uncertainty, unpredictability and inefficiency in any rationalizing system...(ritzer 1996:101 - from Mcdonalization.com) I am going to focus on shopping; where we shop, how we shop and the shops we shop in which I believe has been heavily influenced by the Mcdonaization thesis. By assessing the presence of the 4 factors mentioned I will evaluate the changes. The department shore shows maximum efficiency of shopping.

    • Word count: 1722
  24. The Reason behind the Increase of Consumer debt and Materialism

    As functionalists would say, this benefits other institutions like family (members getting employed), religion (churches, temples, mosques, etc. receive larger contributions), and education (school taxes become higher because property values are higher). The booming economy also makes it possible for people to purchase more goods and services, fueling materialism and overspending. Over the past years, the economy in general has been booming. According to Labor Department data, there are over 139 million Americans who are employed, up by 2.6 million since the recession ended in November of 2001. This has caused for many family members to either gain employment or have their wages increased.

    • Word count: 1425
  25. Examine sociological explanations of the relationship between education and the economy

    This can be done through lessons such as history. He believes that school teaches pupils how to co-operate and work with others. The subjects that are taught in schools are related to skills that are required for work. The education system sifts and sorts the people according to their ability and that those who want to achieve can do so despite social class or background. Parsons thinks that the school is the first place where they are taught universal values and rules. School helps introduce a consensus; this is where everyone agrees on the same basic values.

    • Word count: 1345

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the view that schools and what takes place within them are the main causes of social class difference in educational achievement.

    "To conclude my essay I think that school and what takes place in them isn't the main cause of social class. I think schooling is a good pathway provided in order for you to achieve you goals. This is only the case if the individual want to learn and work hard for a good job. Functionalist say that meritocracy isn't a myth with I agree with because its all about the individual."

  • Assess the View that Working Class Children Underachieve Because they are Culturally Deprived

    "Race also comes into the argument, in the sense that teachers can often label and black boys are frequently perceived as badly behaved and under achieving. However Errol Lawrence challenges this view and blames it on racism. To conclude, the extent to which working-class children are affected by their cultural values and socialisation is more vast than that of a middle-class pupil. Sugarman outlines four main factors that affect this; Falism; Collectivism; Immediate gratification and present-time orientation. It has been proved that children of working class families have a much higher chance of possessing these traits, and this can often lead to labelling and a negative attitude towards education, resulting in failure."

  • Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of religion?

    "In conclusion, religion can be both a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Functionalists would argue that religion acts as a conservative force in that it inhibits social change by promoting social solidarity and integration. Marxists have a similar view, however, they believe religion inhibits social change in that it discourage individuals from trying to change their position in society. On the other hand, Weber and Neo-Marxists argue that religion can be revolutionary and act as an initiator of social change. This evidence suggests that religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Jessica Pemberton"

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